Sabtu, 23 Januari 2021

Production of Electricity and Charcoal from Banana Trunk Waste

Banana trees only bear fruit once. After this fruit, the banana tree dies and the trunk becomes waste. Meanwhile, banana production from the plantation is continued by its seedlings. To maintain the quality of banana production, controlling the number of banana saplings is important, especially in plantations that are professionally managed. The more banana trees, especially if the number is not controlled, the quality and quantity of bananas produced will decrease.

After the bananas are harvested, the trunks are just left in the banana plantation. Even though banana trunks can be used for electricity and charcoal production, namely by continuous pyrolysis technology. The electricity produced can be used for banana packaging production operations which are usually export-oriented and charcoal can be used to maintain the fertility of the banana plantation land itself or for fuel, for example by making briquettes. The process of removing banana trunks from the plantation should also be easy because you can take advantage of the means used to transport bananas from the plantation, of course, with a few modifications. After the banana trunks are collected in a place, then the size is reduced (downsizing) and the moisture content is reduced so that can continue processed with the pyrolysis unit.

Large banana plantations generally manage plantation covering thousands or tens of thousands hectares. With these conditions, the resulting banana trunk waste is also very large, or comparable to the banana harvest. Costa Rica is a country that is well-known as a banana producing country. In a number of countries in Southeast Asia such as Indonesia, Malaysia and the Philippines, there are also a number of large banana plantations. By utilizing banana stem waste or adding waste from the plantation, besides overcoming environmental problems and preventing banana tree disease so that the productivity of the banana plantation is maintained, it also provides other benefits. The use of charcoal (biochar) for the banana plantation. Besides being able to save on the use of fertilizers, it will also increase the productivity of the banana fruit itself, as can also be done in oil palm plantations, for more details can be read here. A number of practices using charcoal for agriculture (biochar) can increase crop productivity by up to 40%.

Senin, 28 Desember 2020

Water Hyacinth Pyrolysis For Electricity And Charcoal Production


Map of distribution of global water hyacinth infestation
Water hyacinth has become a global concern as the most disturbing and invasive aquatic weed. The impact of water hyacinth losses covers the environment, economy and even social conditions experienced by many countries as a result of the water hyacinth attack. Economically, the losses due to water hyacinth are also very large, reaching hundreds to thousands of millions of dollars. Pyrolysis of water hyacinth for electricity and charcoal production is one solution to overcome the water hyacinth attack. In this way, it is hoped that the growth of water hyacinth can be controlled and reduce the environmental impact significantly. This is because the speed of attack from the fast growth of water hyacinth can be balanced with the speed of the biomass requirement for the pyrolysis process that produces electricity and charcoal.

The electricity generated in addition to operate or running the pyrolysis unit can also be used for various needs of the surrounding community. Meanwhile, the charcoal produced can be used for energy and agricultural applications, or in general the motivation for charcoal (biochar) production is as shown in the scheme below. And to facilitate handling both storage, transportation and use, the charcoal can be compressed / densified into pellets or briquettes. The need for energy or fuel for the surrounding community for cooking and so on, can use the charcoal that has been compressed into the pellets or briquette. If the community previously used firewood obtained from the forest illegally, then the charcoal pellet or briquette is also a solution to the problem of forest destruction.

The use of water hyacinth as a bioenergy is the best option and is most recommended by prominent experts and researchers around the world. Pyrolysis is one way or method of bioenergy production. It is true that water hyacinth also provides environmental benefits, namely phytoremediation, but with uncontrolled development, the aspects of the losses incurred are far greater than the benefits obtained. This requires good management so as to produce optimal benefits. In a number of cases even the water hyacinth creates silting which causes the volume and discharge of water, even though the water is used for hydroelectric power plants. This causes the hydropower plant to have less water supply and disrupt its operation. So that the use of water hyacinth for electricity production with pyrolysis will again increase the supply of electricity produced and at the same time overcome the volume and discharge of water for the hydropower plant. Basically, maintaining a balance between the environment and economic aspects must be made in such a way as to become a sustainable activity so that it is in line with the bioeconomic era. Bioeconomics is defined as knowledge-based production and using biological resources or living things to produce products, processes and services in the economic sector within the framework of a sustainable economic system.

Jumat, 03 April 2020

Fertilizer Savings in Palm Oil Plantations with Biochar and Compost from Biogas Waste

Although Indonesia is the largest CPO producer in the world with an area of ​​approximately 13 million hectares of palm oil plantations, but it is estimated that less than 10% have a biogas facility from POME (Palm oil mill effluent). Whereas by utilizing POME for biogas production, besides being able to be converted into electricity or heat, it also produces organic fertilizer in the form of compost and liquid organic fertilizer. The compost can be used as fertilizer in oil palm plantations, where the cost of fertilizer for palm oil operations is the highest cost component. It is estimated that every 10,000 hectares costs approximately Rp. 35.75 billion (around US$ 2.25 million) for fertilizer and for more details, you can read here. The use of compost will certainly reduce the need for fertilizer.
Palm oil utilization scheme for optimizing CPO production
Besides that, solid wastes such as palm oil empty fruit bunch, fiber and palm oil frond are also very potential for the production of energy (electricity and heat) and biochar. Energy production in the form of electricity and heat is by burning pyrolysis byproducts in the form of syngas and biooil into the furnace to heat the boiler. And because the syngas and liquid fuels used in the furnace, so that the combustion process is more perfect and clean emissions. Steam generated from the boiler will then drive the steam turbine and generator so as to produce electricity. Low pressure steam from steam turbine is then used for sterilization or boiling the fresh fruit bunches (FFB). While biochar will be used together with compost and chemical fertilizers to make fertilizer effective in the palm oil plantations so that it becomes a slow release fertilizer. Costs for fertilization are also expected to be significantly reduced, for example by up to 50% by this way. Although biochar is not a fertilizer, it has a function that makes fertilizer use effectively because it holds fertilizer nutrients from leaching, for example from rain water, also maintains moisture and so on.
PKS loading for export in Indonesia
PKS (palm kernel shell) can even be sold or exported. This is because previously or in general the palm kernel shells used to fuel boilers with fiber, have been substituted with products from the pyrolysis process namely syngas and biooil. The need for palm kernel shells for both the domestic / local and export markets continues to increase all the time. Palm kernel shells / PKS are environmentally friendly fuels because they come from biomass so they are carbon neutral fuels. The use of PKS as a fuel is widely used by a number of industries starting as a heat source for the drying process such as spray dryers in detergent and ceramic plants, boilers in food industries such as soy sauce factory, to power plants such as in Japan, can be read in more detail here. In the world of biomass fuel commodity trading, especially in the international market, PKS is the main competitor of wood pellets. Although the specifications are not much different, the price of PKS is also cheaper because it comes from palm oil mill waste and does not need complex processing units such as wood pellets. And basically with the scheme of utilizing palm oil mill wastes as above, it will maximize the profit from the palm oil mill or CPO mill.

Selasa, 31 Maret 2020

Energy Independent With Pyrolysis

A community even in remote areas can be energy independent as long as there is an energy source in the area. Biomass energy sources from plants are energy sources that can be obtained almost anywhere. The plant can be planted as a source of raw materials for the production of energy needed. Heat and electricity energy is energy that mostly needed, in addition to energy or fuel for vehicles as a means of transportation. Heat energy is mainly needed for cooking while electrical energy for various purposes in life. Pyrolysis is a technology that can meet the energy needs as above. The diagram below explains the application of pyrolysis to meet these energy needs:

Charcoal is a solid fuel product from pyrolysis. Although solid fuels such as charcoal, are not as practical and easy as gas fuels, the use of charcoal for cooking fuel has many advantages including being safe because it will not explode, smokeless, odorless, has a high calorific value and is an environmentally friendly fuel. While firewood in addition to causing a lot of smoke, smell, low calorie value also interfere with health. Today there are also many countries in Africa that use charcoal for cooking fuel. To make it easier to use and store, the charcoal can be made into briquettes. While fuel for vehicles such as diesel oil and gasoline can be produced from biooil. Vehicles for transportation can operate in the presence of these fuels. The availability of petroleum in Indonesia, which is estimated to be 10 years away, needs to be anticipated and prepared from now on. The current low price of petroleum makes petroleum exports less attractive, especially for Indonesia, which is currently a net importer of petroleum.
Charcoal stoves are widely used in Africa
In the future era when electric vehicles are widely used, electricity production especially for battery charging is prioritized. The energy source for electric cars as environmentally friendly vehicles should also be from renewable energy sources, for more details, please read here. Biomass is a carbon neutral energy source so it does not increase the concentration of CO2 or greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Woody biomass from the energy plantation is the ideal raw material for the pyrolysis feed. Multipurpose energy plantations are the best energy plantation for this, so that in addition to sustainable production, it also provides other benefits, for more details about multipurpose energy plantations can be read here. Remote areas, especially those with large lands, will have the potential to develop these energy plantations, so that an energy independent community or region can truly be formed and sustainable. Areas in surrounding the palm oil plantations can also utilize biomass waste from palm oil mills and plantations such as palm oil empty fruit bunches (EFB), fronds, etc. for the pyrolysis feed. Indonesia is the owner of the largest palm oil plantation in the world with an area of ​​around 13 million hectares and 1,000 palm oil mills. 

Sabtu, 14 Maret 2020

Business Model Utilization of Palm Oil Empty Fruit Bunches to Maximize the Profit of the Palm Oil Industry

Palm oil empty fruit bunches  (EFB) are still a problem for the palm oil mills in general. The scenario of utilizing palm oil EFB as the goal should be able to cope well with the environment and provide economic benefits. Overcoming environmental problems is clearly a top priority and must be met, but the best use of EFB scenarios should also benefit the environment, both short term and even long term. Likewise for economic benefits, economic benefits should also be obtained in line with these environmental benefits, not counterproductive. That is the best scenario for the use of palm oil EFB, which is currently still a problem.
Palm oil plantations are the production base for palm oil mills, both CPO mills and PKO mills. Without the palm fruit produced from the palm oil plantation, the palm oil mill will not be able to produce. Operation of palm oil plantations is indeed not an easy and expensive thing. This is mainly a factor of the large usage fertilizer demand, so as to reach around 60% for the operation of the palm oil plantations themselves or with an area of ​​20,000 hectares of palm oil plantations, the cost needs reach more than 70 billion rupiahs ( (around US$ 4,766,667), for more details, please read here. The factor to reduce the cost of fertilizer and maintain the productivity of palm oil fruits or fresh fruit bunches and even increase them is the main target for the utilization or processing of palm oil  EFB. If the cost of palm oil plantation operations can be reduced, the greater the benefits. Biochar is a palm oil EFB processing product that can be used to reduce fertilizer requirements in the palm oil plantation. Biochar production using pyrolysis as shown below.
In the process of pyrolysis, besides producing the main product in the form of biochar, then biooil and syngas are also produced. The biooil and syngas are then used as fuel generator to produce electricity. In palm oil mills or CPO mills, fiber waste is also commonly found. The fiber waste is often just piled up and never utilized so it tends to pollute the environment. Though these fibers can be made pellets for export and become fuel for power plants. In addition, currently millions of hectares of old palm oil plantations in Indonesia need to be immediately replanting. Millions of tons of old oil palm trunks are also potential for pellet production. If old oil palm trunks are only left in the plantation so they rot and decay, then it will become lava media and subsequently become a beetle which actually disrupts productive palm oil plantations as well as other plantations, for more details read here. The production of pellets from fiber or palm trunks requires electricity and this can be supplied from the pyrolysis of palm oil EFB like the scheme above. Although palm oil mills also produce electricity, but generally only for the purpose of CPO production, so it is not enough for the production of fiber pellets and oil palm trunk pellets (OPT pellets).

Selasa, 03 Maret 2020

Dessicated Coconut Factory and Continuous Pyrolysis

There are about 20 dessicated coconut factories operating in Indonesia or estimated to be more than 100 units worldwide. With an average capacity of 2 tons / hour, this dessicated coconut factory requires approximately 16,200 coconuts every hour. The byproducts produced are coconut shell and coconut water. Coconut shells produced are around 6 tons / hour and coconut water 4.2 tons / hour. The dessicated coconut plant needs electricity and heat to sterilize the coconut meat and drying the dessicated coconut. Energy in the form of electricity and heat can be met from the utilization of the coconut shell.
There are several technologies for utilizing these coconut shells so that products in the form of electricity and heat are obtained. The popular technology today is with a steam turbine boiler, with this technology the coconut shell is burned in a furnace and heats water in the boiler so that it produces steam to drive the turbine and then generate electricity through a generator. This technology is the same as in palm oil mills. In palm oil mill the fiber and part of the palm kernel shell (PKS) is used as fuel to produce electricity and steam is also used to sterilize fresh fruit bunches (FFB) before being processed into oil.
Another better technology is continuous pyrolysis. This in addition to producing electricity and heat also produces charcoal product. Coconut shell charcoal is high-quality charcoal and is much needed by a number of industries such as the briquette charcoal industry and activated carbon. In the pyrolysis technology the coconut shell is not burned directly, but is heated in a vacuum condition (absence of oxygen). Pyrolysis products such as syngas and biooil are used for electricity production and can also be heat, heat energy is also produced from the pyrolysis process itself which is exothermic, while charcoal is the main product of the pyrolysis process.

Minggu, 16 Februari 2020

Reviving the Integrated Coconut Industry Part 8: Coconut Milk, VCO, Dessicated Coconut, Coconut Water, Nata de Coco, Shell Charcoal and Activated Carbon

Basically the campaign to save the coconut plantation (tree of life) is to revive the integrated coconut industry. Damaged and not maintained of coconut plantations due to lack of funding to maintain and develop it in a sustainable manner.

Bioeconomy is defined as knowledge-based production and uses biological resources or living things to produce products, processes, and services in the economic sector within the framework of a sustainable economic system.

Instant coconut milk or packaged coconut milk is almost unthinkable, especially by mothers in Indonesia a few decades ago. Likewise, bottled coconut water, almost all Indonesians were also unthinkable at that time. That is mainly because coconut is very easy to get in almost all corners of the country. But this condition changed when Asian cuisine began to worldwide so that many Western people like it. Coconut milk as one of the main elements of the dish has become a necessity that must be provided. Urban communities with dense population and have a high level of activity, need something practical and instant that makes instant coconut milk products easily accepted. It is also the same as instant food seasoning products that are in demand in urban areas.

Coconut milk and bottled coconut water industry is a type of large industry so it requires a supply of raw materials in large quantities and continuously. To get these conditions in general can only be in coconut plantations which are not infrequently still very remote location. At that location, electricity and a number of supporting infrastructure were not yet available, so the integrated coconut industry could not yet be operated. Electricity is one of the basic needs for industrial operations, so it needs to be made before running the integrated coconut industry such as industries with the main products are coconut milk and bottled coconut water. The production of electricity for this purpose can be done in at least two ways: first, with a steam boiler, as is usually done in a palm oil mill. Coconut coir which has the lowest economic value is used for fuel.
The second way, namely by continuous pyrolysis. Coconut shell can be used as raw material for the pyrolysis. With pyrolysis technology, it would be more profitable because besides electricity generated, heat and charcoal shells are also produced. Electricity and heat can be used for the operation of the coconut processing industry, while shell charcoal can be directly sold or further processed into briquettes or activated carbon. When the need for electricity is large, power plants can use both, namely coconut coir steam boilers and pyrolysis with raw materials for coconut shells. If you want to produce more charcoal, coconut coir can also be used for continuous pyrolysis fuel. The quality of coconut coir is lower than that of coconut shell. This is so that coconut coir charcoal can be used as agricultural charcoal (agri-char / biochar) so that it will increase the productivity of coconut plantations, while coconut shell charcoal for the purposes mentioned above.
Apart from being processed into packaged coconut milk, fruit meat can also be processed into VCO (Virgin Coconut Oil) or dessicated cooconut. VCO production can be done on a medium scale, but currently for the export market or foreign buyers in general require organic certificates. That is also the reason why the production of small-scale VCO for the export market is difficult. Basically, coconuts can be made for a variety of products, according to market needs. Almost all coconut processing industries require electricity and heat for the production process (specifically for the VCO industry, only electricity). The integrated coconut industry approach makes the coconut processing industry more efficient. The combination of the coconut processing industry adjusts to market needs. The dim market for copra & coconut oil, it turns out that little by little is substituted by increasing markets for dessicated coconut, VCO, coconut milk, nata de coco, bottled coconut water and even coconut sugar. Is it possible that the coconut will come back victorious? There are indications there indeed. Wallahu'alam