Rabu, 31 Mei 2017

Sludge Oil Waste Processing With Pyrolysis

Petroleum sludge oil waste from exploitation, refining, distribution and storage of petroleum cause many environment problems if not handle properly. Sludge oil in the form mud with black color, sometimes mixed with soil, stone, etc. The mud come from sedimentation of petroleum powdery particles. Sludge sediment will be more in bottoms storage tank and distributor. Basically the mixture of oil, water, and solid in the sludge oil makes colloid system that difficult in ordinary physic separation. The sludge oil contain many chemical compounds that harmful to environment but can be used optimally if properly processed. The composition of sludge oil namely short hydrocarbon chain with carbon quantity 1 or 2 unit (C1, C2) until long chain hydrocarbon molecules (C15-C30+). The thermal route with pyrolysis is effective and efficient way to process the waste. With pyrolysis the processing can be done in shorter time, compared with biological route with microorganism that need longer time. Pyrolysis or thermal decomposition make the material into plain chemical compounds from complex compounds will be effective way for the sludge oil processing. Heavy metal contain from the sludge oil will be in solid product of the pyrolysis so the next handling will be easier.
Beside the petroleum refinery, sludge oil also be found in the bunker oil. The sludge oil quantity up to 5% from the mass of the bunker oil. Petroleum industry grow rapidly in Indonesia, started with the operation on Processing Unit (PU) I in Pangkalan Brandan with capacity 5,000 barrel/day, PU II in Dumai and Sungai Pakning with capacity 170,000 barrel/day, PU III Plaju and Sungai Gerong with capacity 135.000 barrel/day, PU IV Cilacap with capacity 348,000 barrel/day, UP V Balikpapan with capacity 270,000 barrel/day, UP VI Balongan with capacity 125,000 barrel/day. And UP VII Kasim Irian Jaya with capacity 10,000 barrel/day. Hundreds thousand tons of sludge oil is estimated from the petroleum industrial activities. Right now sludge oil processing usually with manual cleaning and then directly injected into petroleum well so will cause pollution in surrounding area but more of them only store in the waste ponds. If the sludge oil is processed with pyrolysis so will be produced many products mainly useful oil, have economic value, can be reused again in petroleum process, and overcomes many environment problems.

Sludge oil have characteristic like mud so it is very difficult to be separated of the liquid fraction namely oil and water and also the solid fraction with sedimentation. With pyrolysis so the sludge oil will be separated based on the boiling points. Some products in the form, solid, liquid and gas will be obtained. Liquid product in the form of oil with plain chemical structure and can be mixed with water but then can be separated easily with decantation, the gas product contain with light gases can be burned like methane, then the solid product namely soil, sand, stone and organic char. The continuous pyrolyser can process sludge oil with large capacity. JF continuous pyrolysis with indirect heating is the equipment that can process the sludge oil with capacity up to 200 tons/day sludge oil (input). With low heating rate and maximum temperature in the range 500 C so the pyrolysis process can be operated well.

The various usage of pyrolysis oil in example for mixture of bunker oil, liquid fuel powerplant, burner fuel, can be reuse for petroleum refinery so the oil can be recovered more. For the excess gas product can be used for energy source or fuel in many sectors. And the last, the solid product can be used for building material and so on.

Minggu, 19 Maret 2017

Upgrade PKS with Torrefaction

Application of the tax on PKS (Palm Kernel Shell) based on the Minister of Finance Indonesia No 67/2010 on stipulation of export goods subject duties (Bea Keluar/ BK) has made the selling price in the international market or the export market to be high. The amount of export duties and export taxes which value is currently around US $ 15 / ton, making a number of parties thought to do the processing of the PKS. Enforcement of the above regulations is also intended to encourage the growth of domestic industry. PKS categorized as raw materials, thus further processing into a solution to it. The selling price of PKS from Indonesia less competitive, when compared before, because it becomes much more expensive.
The use of palm shells (PKS) today especially for fuel of large scale power plant. And in particular Japan and Korea are much in need of the PKS. The need also tends greater for the next few years. Japan, especially in the next 1-2 years the need is predicted to increase sharply as the operation of power plants using biomass and part of PKS as a mixture (co-firing) with coal.
 Torrefaction is biomass processing to increase the calorific value and improve its characteristics. With torrefaction the energy content in biomass increased by 20% and conversion rate reached 70%, or nearly three times the carbonization conversion were an average of 25%.  In addition to the torrefaction then torrefied PKS product will be hydrophobic so that it does not absorb water / moisture.  This will make it easier in terms of handling and storage. Furthermore, by compaction (densification) into pellets torrified PKS, the density also will increase, as well as the energy content per volume of it. Pelleting torrified PKS will save significant transportation costs from the manufacturer to the user. JFBC technology is able to perform continuous torrefaction process, with a production capacity up to 140 tonnes per day of torrified PKS.

Kamis, 09 Februari 2017

Continuous Pyrolysis Most Suitable For Bulk Raw Materials

Bulk raw materials such as palm shells, rice husks, sawdust, peanut shells, coffee husk and so, if will be charred or carbonized best suited with continuous pyrolysis. This is because the bulk of raw materials can flow or poured into a container such as a pipe. Retort type pyrolysis by an auger inside it will push along the retort and into charcoal at the outlet. JFBC continuous pyrolysis is one of them and is capable of producing charcoal up to 70 tonnes/day in its largest unit. Raw material with size upto 1 inch is accepted in the pyrolysis unit. It will be difficult when using batch pyrolysis because it will take a long time and process control also not easy. In the retort pyrolysis temperature, timing and heating rate control also easy to do. The process time on a continuous pyrolysis is also fast and very different to the type of batch that takes days and even up weekly.

In addition to the continuous pyrolysis will produce a number of side products that also have economic value, which is generally to be difficult in a batch pyrolysis. Pyrolysis by-products include wood vinegar / liquid smoke, bio-oil, tar and syngas. Utilization of wood vinegar / liquid smoke, among others as a fish preservative or rubber coagulant. Bio-oil is used as fuel for the boiler and can be upgraded to vehicle fuel. Tar also can be as fuel and syngas because large amount could be as a source of heat to electricity generation.
Some industries require charcoal in the size of the bulk because of the charcoal into a material that ready for them. Agricultural charcoal (biochar), charcoal for activated charcoal raw material in various purification industries from the food sector, mining and even oil and gas, hereinafter the steel industry and others. The bulk charcoal as raw material will reduce production costs for the downstream industry, if the particle size and shape according to the needs of the industry concerned or ready-made, so the cost of downsizing (size reduction) could be eliminated if use large-sized charcoals.