Senin, 24 Desember 2012

"Carbon Farming" for Palm Oil Plantation part VI: Think Sustainability, Think Biochar

When we think about the sustainability of palm oil, we would think about the sustainability of palm fruit production and that means thinking about the management of the plantation itself. And talk about the management of palm oil plantations mean can not be separated bymaintaining soil fertility. Efforts to maintain the fertility of the soil is an ongoing effort as the palm oil plantation business. Biochar is one of the excellent material in maintaining soil fertility.
Biochar from JF BioCarbon

Biomass wastes that are highly abundant in palm oil is a potential feedstock for biochar production while continous slow pyrolysis technology will continue also produced green energy for processing in the palm oil mill. A business that zero waste in its operations that sustain the production of palm trees. Thinking about the sustainability of palm oil plantations means thinking about biochar.

Biochar, Climate Change and Global Warming

This time is the topic of climate change and global warming back into the world spotlight. Frameworks Convention annual meeting of theUnited Nations Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) was opened last week took place in Doha, Qatar with 15000 people are expected to participate. The emphasis today is more necessary action as compared to the previous conference. In the 18th climate change conference (COP18) is getting a lot of evidence of natural disasters due to climate change are shown.

Mitigation of climate change and global warming would cost billions of dollars. The Climate Policy Initiative is make estimation need around  US $ 300 billion each year in 2020 and increased to US $ 500 billion by 2030. While the commitment of industrialized countries only allocate US$ 100 billion  annually in the UNFCCC's GreenClimate Fund.

Role of Biochar
Although it has not received great attention in efforts to mitigate climate change-related disasters and global warming, in fact biochar potential as a tool that a lot of benefits. When we look at the motives for biochar production would look like this chart:

In the first study on the impact of climate change in SouthEast Asia by the Asian Development Bank (ADB) in 2009: based on high emissions scenario, average temperatures in four countries-Indonesia, Philippines, Thailand and Vietnam - is projected to rise 4.8 degrees Celsius in 2100 from 1990 levels, average global sea level rise is 70 cm long time, and Indonesia, Thailand and Vietnam is projected to experience the drier climate in two or three decades. Southeast Asia seems more affected by climate change than the global average.

Indonesia and Malaysia as a tropical country with a very rich potential of waste biomass mainly from agro-industries such as oil industry, the potential for applying biochar appropriate motivation in the image above. MPOB (Malaysian Palm Oil Board) specifically researching biochar to plant oil palm. Implementing Continuous Slow Pyrolysis technology with waste biomass feedstock will produce environmentally friendly energy that are categorized as "Carbon Neutral" because the balance does not increase the amount of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, while the application of biochar as a by-product on the farm in addition will increase the fertility of the soil is also able to absorb greenhouse gases in the atmosphere that are categorized as "Carbon Negative" because the balance will reduce the concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. So with the application of Continous Slow Pyrolysis and product of biochar will get the optimum comprehensive solution to the scheme shown above which was instrumental in reducing the effects of climate change and global warming.

 The use of technology "carbon capture and storage" usually by injecting CO2 emissions from fossil-fueled power plants (as a CO2 gas producer unit or the biggesr greenhouse gases  currently) into the earth very expensive investment, so the need for the use of environmentally friendly renewable energy-biomassbased with Slow Continuous Pyrolysis technology and application biochar as its product will receive great attention soon.

Sabtu, 15 Desember 2012

"Carbon Farming" For Palm Oil Plantation Part 5: Organic Palm Oil Plantations

Although currently not pictured on organic palm oil plantations. But organic palm oil plantation is possible in the coming era. Biochar application on palm oil plantation which is very effective for the home of microbes so as to enrich the soil. Microbes such as mooring N and so can be inoculated in the biochar application. While the nutritional requirements of bacteria in biochar will then be supplied from manure, so the integration of oil palm plantations and cattle ranches is imperative.

When this has been done then the contribution to saving the environment and food security is huge. Substantial revenue will come from the amount of carbon absorbed by the application of biochar through mechanisms such as CDM and organic palm oil products has its own market segment.
photo is taken from here

"Carbon Farming" for Palm Oil Plantation Part 4: Misperceptions Between Biochar and Ash

photo is taken from here

Because biochar application to palm oil plantations are new, many of those who do not know and tend to equalize between biochar and ash as fertilizer for palm oil plantations. Though both are clearly very different. Judging from the occurrence of the biochar and the ash is very different. Biochar produced from pyrolysis process while the ash generated from the direct combustion (incinerator) or gasification.

Judging from biochar also many different functions of the ashes just as low quality mineral fertilizers, because biochar could be a home of microbes that will increase the soil fertility. Here are some of the reasons for the agricultural use of biochar:
-Reducing requirements for other inputs, such as conventional fertilizer
-Absorption of carbon from the atmosphere to reduce the concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere
-Increase yield by overcoming obstacles to growth (eg, poor soil structure, low pH, etc.)
-Improve the quality of plant growth by overcoming obstacles (eg, poor nutrient absorption resulting in low protein content)
-Remediation of contaminated soil
-Improve the physical or aesthetic properties of the soil or growing media (for example, make it dark, lowering the density of pores or give to the soil and so on)
Biochar production process with continuous slow pyrolysis technology is also very environmentally friendly because the emission gas well below the permitted threshold. While the direct burning incinerator technology has not allowed for reasons of emission gas and ash byproduct of low economic value.

"Carbon Farming" for Palm Oil Plantation Part 3: Economics of Technology Implementation

photo is taken from here

Basically, the conversion of biomass to the various technologies will face the final question about how much the economy in the form of investment and how much value added is generated. In many cases in Indonesia many biomass thermal conversion technology like gasification have not found economical and finally the equipment does not operate (idle) and as a result are generally the technology is not well developed. In the case of gasification which produce electricity, cost components that greatly affect their economic  is the price of raw materials, equipment investment and the selling price the electric. In fact most gasification in operation condition because the gasification groove is used for own use.

While many tools are being prepared for economical aspect of biomass thermal conversion technology, the continuous slow pyrolysis plant for own-use in palm oil mill will give a huge advantage for being able to meet the energy needs and improve the soil fertility of their plantation. For the implementation of continous slow pyrolysis technology, ultimately the question that arises again is its economic factor "how big an investment for equipment / unit / technology" and "how much value added generated". Check out our presentation to help you make a decision.

Jumat, 14 Desember 2012

Carbon Farming For Palm Oil Plantation Part 2

Leading plantations and agronomist are searching for better ways to manage land for higher production and healthier profit, as well as a buffer against Climate Change. Soil Health is widely recognized as the key to these benefits, and Soil Carbon is the key to Soil Health.

Carbon Farming is the land management system that is the most effective in responding to Climate Change. It can be used to build a buffer against higher temperatures and lower rain fall. It can cut input costs as it taps into the nutrient reserves and productive capacity hidden in the soil. Carbon farming is the only way to increase soil carbon which the engine room of growth in Agriculture. 
photo taken from here
Increasing soil carbon is likely to enhance the long term sustainability of farms as it plays a central role in the physical, chemical, and biological health of the soil and hence the productive capacity of arable soils. Increasing the biomass input, decreasing the decomposition rate and increasing the potential of a soil to store carbon will all act to increase soil carbon. Soils with the greatest potential to sequester carbon will be those that have suffered a  significant loss of carbon with clearing of native vegetation and have a capacity to increase biomass production or can protect added carbon from decomposition (Baldock et al 2009).

Farmers wanting to build soil carbon may be able to achieve this though maintaining and enhancing vegetation cover, maximizing vegetation growth, minimizing soil disturbance, and changing the soil texture. Activities that broad acre farmers may consider to increase soil carbon include :
·        -Converting cropping land to productive pastures and increasing the pasture phases in crop rotation
·         -Increasing practices to retain stubble
·         -Green manuring, particularly legume crops
·         -The application of soil ameliorants such as biochar, compost, or manure  (Sanderman et al 2010), and
·         -Alterations to soil texture through the addition of clay to lighter textured soils.

Photo taken from here
Palm oil industry in Indonesia & Malaysia which in operations generate a lot of waste biomass and on the other hand requires energy in the form of heat and electricity for the process of the fruits and high productivity of palm oil plants, then very potential to apply the continous slow pyrolysis technology to get energy and biocharnya to carbon farming.
photo's taken from here

Carbon farming is a different way of looking at your land. It gives you a different set of priorities, if you get it right, it can deliver everything you ever wanted to get out of farming. And more…..

Sabtu, 01 Desember 2012

"Carbon Farming" for Palm Oil Plantation Part 1

Fertilization in palm plantation business is costly, even this is the highest cost component of the business. Fertilization is a vital activity to the success and sustainability of the business. Fertilization get a portion of 65% and up in the plantation-based business expenses. Analogues same as livestock business that feed holds the highest component of about 80 percent. Thus reducing the need for fertilizer will benefit the business. Moreover, chemical fertilizers are used in the oil palm plantation business are also non-subsidized. There are a number of efforts that can be done to reduce the fertilizer, which in essence is to increase the efficiency of absorption of the fertilizer for plants.

Basically plants will always require fertilizer in certain amount as the nutrients for the growth and productivity of fruit. Thus ensuring adequate fertilizer as the nutrition for the palm trees are principles that should be sought for this business. In fact, to provide a sufficient number of that is costly, due to a variety of site-specific environmental factors such as palm oil is located. Fertilizer in general will be a lot of washed / leaching (50% in average) giving rise to much waste to the detriment of the economy. It can not be allowed to continue and need immediate solutions to overcome them.
Photo taken from here
Application of biochar is one perfect solution for it. CPO plant every day produces excess waste biomass will potentially be used for biochar feedstock. Production of biochar by JF BioCarbon continous slow pyrolysis  reliable to process the amount of waste biomass. In addition to producing biochar also be produced green energy (renewable energy) that can be used for the industrial production of CPO or its various derivatives. Current regulation that prohibits direct burning of biomass waste with the incinerator will further strengthen the continuous slow pyrolysis technology as the best solution for the problem.

There are many scenarios that we can use for biochar application in palm oil plantations, among others enriched with chemical fertilizers (NPK), enriched with compost (and plus mulch), or adding a bacteria that contributes greatly to soil enrichment. If your palm oil industry have a concept for prioritizing environmentally friendly with the use of renewable energy, and energy efficiency, zero waste, sustainable and would like to play real to nourish the planet from global warming, then the application of biochar to "Carbon Farming" is the best solution.