here and here.
Jumat, 22 Februari 2019
here and here.
Kamis, 21 Februari 2019
Selasa, 06 November 2018
Advantages of Municipal Waste Processing by Pyrolysis Compared to Fluidized Bed Combustion, Incenerator, Hydrothermal Carbonization (HTC) and Gasification
Municipal waste is always a problem everywhere, especially in big cities. With proper processing, the municipal waste should be an attractive opportunity that has great potential. Municipal waste that amounts to thousands of tons per day needs fast handling so that it does not cause problems, moreover the waste management should require cheap investment and even benefit the waste management party. The question is what is the waste processed into, in what ways and where can it be used? Let's compare waste processing with a thermal route with various existing technologies, namely fluidized bed combustion, incenerator, hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) and gasification. Why are only thermal routes compared? This is because if the biological route takes a long processing time and requires a large place. In short, the biological route is not effective in overcoming the problem of municipal waste.
Basically all the thermal technologies mentioned above can be used to process municipal waste, only how effective and how economically profitable it is the topic of discussion. It really depends on the condition of each region, for example a number of major cities in Indonesia have oversupply electricity production, so that if added to electricity production it will meaningless and not absorbed. Another factor is the investment needed for waste processing equipment, which is generally still very expensive. Based on this, a solution is needed that can be suitable for a particular region. In fluidized bed combustion technology, incenerator and gasification in general is to produce electricity, even though electricity has also been oversupplied so it is not an option.
With HTC technology will produce the main product in the form of carbon material or charcoal, but HTC equipment investment is still expensive. Well, of all the thermal route technologies, continuous pyrolysis is the best choice because it produces the main product in the form of charcoal. Charcoal with the main content of carbon can be used for fuel, especially boilers in the industry. Boilers that have been using coal even from other fossil energy such as gas and petroleum can switch to using charcoal produced from municipal waste. The use of charcoal from municipal waste will certainly reduce the use of coal in particular and fossil energy in general. And the most important thing is of course to overcome the environmental problems caused by the garbage. The continuous pyrolysis units are also not centralized in one place, but can be spread more to various locations on a medium scale, for example each location to process municipal waste with a capacity of 200 tons / day. If let's say Jakarta produces 5000 tons / day of municipal solid waste every day, 25 continuous pyrolysis units are needed. To save transportation and facilitate storage and use, the charcoal product can be made of charcoal pellets or charcoal briquettes.
With the use of continuous pyrolysis, InsyaAllah the problem of municipal waste in big cities can be overcome while providing economic benefits (read: profits) for the manager companies. While the garbage problem continues to haunt and has never been resolved to this day, so an effective and solution-oriented innovation is needed to overcome it. Jakarta is the largest city in Indonesia surrounded by many industrial estates and boilers are one of the important equipment widely used by these industries. If Jakarta's waste is processed into charcoal, it can replace the fuel for the boilers. Steam power plants can also use charcoal for their fuel, for example with cofiring.
Sabtu, 06 Oktober 2018
agriculture (biochar) and activated charcoal (activated carbon) raw materials.
Sabtu, 08 September 2018
Besides being able to be directly used as fuel, for charcoal production and torrified products, palm kernel shells can also be processed for higher added value which is activated carbon. One of the advantages of activated carbon from palm kernel shells is that the majority of micropore is more than 80%. This makes it suitable for recovering gold and silver from the solution. Another thing that makes it suitable for the application is because of the level of its hardness. Activated carbon from palm kernel shells will have characteristics similar to activated carbon from coconut shell. The form of granule is activated carbon which is commonly used for recovery of gold and silver. The granule shape is made by crushing both coconut shells and palm kernel shells to a certain size.
|Rotating Kiln For Steam (Physical) Activation|
Indonesian and Malaysian palm kernel shell production is huge, which is more than 15 million tons per year from palm oil mills waste. There are around 17 million hectares of palm oil plantations from both countries as palm oil sources and are the largest in the world today. The use of palm kernel shells can be optimized for the production of activated carbon. Activated carbon demand is predicted to increase by about 10% per year and the demand reaches nearly 4 million tons in 2021 valued at 8.12 billion USD (while data in 2015 recorded global production of 2.7 million tons of of activated carbon valued at USD 4.74 billion). Powdered activated carbon (PAC) has the largest market share followed by granular activated carbon (GAC) .The high demand for PAC is mainly driven by the needs in a number of industries such as chemicals, petrochemicals, food and beverages for decolorizarion and deodorization applications. Liquid phase application have the largest portion for usage of activated carbon. Asia Pacific region is the largest market location for activated carbon, and the location of Indonesia and Malaysia which are rich in palm kernel shells is also in the Asia Pacific region, meaning that producers and markets can be in one region, so they should also be the main players of this commodity .
As awareness of sustainability increasing, the production of activated carbon from renewable raw materials will be expanded. It should be noted that world activated carbon production is currently dominated by activated carbon from non-renewable raw materials which reach up to 80% and partly produced in western countries. Activated carbon production can be carried out by chemical or physical activation. Chemical activation is not so much done on an industrial scale because of the associated environmental pollution, although the yield is higher and the operating temperature used is lower. Physical activation, especially with the steam, is the type of activation that is suitable for palm kernel shells and mostly operated today. Rotary kilns are the most widely used equipment for steam or physical activation.
Before being activated, the palm kernel shell is made into charcoal. The charcoal production process is still largely traditional, which makes a lot of air pollution, small yields and large energy losses. Modernization of technology for charcoal production needs to be done to overcome the above. Pyrolysis or continuous carbonization is a technology for charcoal production which is the activated carbon raw material. The pyrolysis or continuous carbonization will also make the activated carbon production process very efficient. This is because one of the highest cost components for the activated carbon production process can be fulfilled from the side products of continuous pyrolysis namely syngas and biooil. For more details can be read here.
Rabu, 29 Agustus 2018
Activated carbon production can be done in two ways, namely physical and chemical activation. Both physical and chemical activation require pyrolysis (carbonization) in the activated carbon production process. The difference about the sequence, in the use of the pyrolysis unit (carbonization) in the activation process is the physical activation of the pyrolysis unit (carbonization) for charcoal production which is then activated using steam or CO2, while the chemical activation of the pyrolysis unit (carbonization) is used for charcoal production from raw materials previously chemically activated like with H3PO4, ZnCl2, KOH. Other differences in physical activation using temperature for activation are higher, namely the range of 800-1000 C while the chemical activation uses a lower temperature, which is around 150-200 C only. Activated carbon products or yield that are produced chemically are more than those produced physically, which are around 3: 1.
While in charcoal production (carbonization) traditionally operating in batches, in addition to a lot of energy loss also produces a lot of smoke which causes air pollution. The loss of energy during the traditional process of carbonization (pyrolysis) can even reach more than 60% meaning that more than half of the energy is only wasted, for more details can be read here. Of course this is very unfortunate, the activated carbon plant which should be able to operate very efficiently and economically, becomes wasteful and expensive. The effect of this is of course on the depletion of the profits obtained by the business. Within a short time it is expected that activated carbon factories will use continuous pyrolysis (carbonization) to increase efficiency, environmental and economic aspects.
The advantage of using a continuous pyrolysis unit for activated carbon production primarily increases the efficiency of the production process and the quality of the products. Efficiency is very important for a production activity. The efficiency of the production process is derived from the use of pyrolysis by-products that can be used to produce heat and even electricity. As an example of physical activation that uses a high operating temperature, excess syngas can be used to reach that temperature. Biooil produced can produce steam. Charcoal products produced from a continuous pyrolysis (carbonization) unit also do not need to be cooled and can be activated directly, so that their energy needs can be minimized. So that the activated carbon production should be an integration between the pyrolysis unit (carbonization) and its activation unit.
While in the chemical activation process, pyrolysis (carbonization) byproducts can also be used for the production of activated carbon. The activation process that uses a temperature that is quite low at 150-200 C can use excess heat from the pyrolysis process for its heat source. While excess syngas can be used to produce electricity for the production of activated carbon or sold to other parties such as other industries or PLN. Biooil can also be used for burner fuel or purified again for the production of vehicle fuel and so on. Continuous use of pyrolysis (carbonization) will also produce high quality, standard and stable product quality, this is because the operating conditions in the unit can be easily and accurately controlled, such as heating rate, residence time and temperature.
A number of regions have been over-supplied with electricity so it is not possible to add or build new power plants. Making a new plant will only be in vain because the electricity production cannot be utilized or absorbed by the user. Based on this, electricity production in a number of areas must be limited and diversified into other products needed. These other products are products whose needs are still not met. Another thing that can be done is to increase the efficiency of a production process. When the efficiency of a production process is improved and produces the products needed, of course the business benefits increase. Besides that, when all the waste can be processed, it becomes a production unit that is zero waste and environmentally friendly.
Palm oil mills are very numerous in Indonesia and Malaysia, the number reaches more than 1000 units, while Thailand also begins to follow the planting of oil palm. At present some of the palm oil mill effluents have not been processed such as empty palm bunches, palm shells and fronds. The palm oil mill that has been operating can be increased efficiency and the production of by-products that provide additional income. This can be done by using a continuous pyrolysis unit for both electrical and heat energy sources and the production of various by-products in the form of charcoal, biooil and biomass vinegar. The three by-products can be sold or marketed and become an additional income for the palm oil mill which is quite attractive.
|Conventional Energy System in Palm Oil Mill|
|Improved Palm Oil Mill with Continous Pyrolysis System|
Palm oil mills also do not need to be bothered with the problem of waste, especially solid waste if everything can be processed and very profitable. Meanwhile, from the environmental aspect of a palm oil mill that is zero waste and environmentally friendly, it is certainly the dream of all the palm oil mill owners. The community and the surrounding environment which is not disturbed by the palm oil mill that is because of its pollution is also a condition desired by the palm oil entrepreneurs. By using the continuous pyrolysis, the air pollution generated is very minimal or far from the required threshold, so that the environment and the surrounding community can be accepted. If the palm oil mills have used continuous pyrolysis, it will also be economically attractive.
Charcoal produced also has many benefits. Technically, charcoal is a stable fuel so it is easy to store and does not decay or is eaten by termites. Charcoal can be used for energy sources directly easily, or converted to other fuels, for example converted into liquid or gas fuel. The condition of fossil fuels, especially petroleum which is increasingly depleted, demands the diversification of energy, such as Indonesia which is predicted to run out of oil in 10 years or in 2028. Likewise, biooil can be used immediately, or upgraded to better fuels, such as vehicle fuel. While biomass vinegar can be used for fertilizer, biopesticides and upgraded to biophenol and wood adhesive.