Rabu, 31 Mei 2017

Sludge Oil Waste Processing With Pyrolysis

Petroleum sludge oil waste from exploitation, refining, distribution and storage of petroleum cause many environment problems if not handle properly. Sludge oil in the form mud with black color, sometimes mixed with soil, stone, etc. The mud come from sedimentation of petroleum powdery particles. Sludge sediment will be more in bottoms storage tank and distributor. Basically the mixture of oil, water, and solid in the sludge oil makes colloid system that difficult in ordinary physic separation. The sludge oil contain many chemical compounds that harmful to environment but can be used optimally if properly processed. The composition of sludge oil namely short hydrocarbon chain with carbon quantity 1 or 2 unit (C1, C2) until long chain hydrocarbon molecules (C15-C30+). The thermal route with pyrolysis is effective and efficient way to process the waste. With pyrolysis the processing can be done in shorter time, compared with biological route with microorganism that need longer time. Pyrolysis or thermal decomposition make the material into plain chemical compounds from complex compounds will be effective way for the sludge oil processing. Heavy metal contain from the sludge oil will be in solid product of the pyrolysis so the next handling will be easier.
Beside the petroleum refinery, sludge oil also be found in the bunker oil. The sludge oil quantity up to 5% from the mass of the bunker oil. Petroleum industry grow rapidly in Indonesia, started with the operation on Processing Unit (PU) I in Pangkalan Brandan with capacity 5,000 barrel/day, PU II in Dumai and Sungai Pakning with capacity 170,000 barrel/day, PU III Plaju and Sungai Gerong with capacity 135.000 barrel/day, PU IV Cilacap with capacity 348,000 barrel/day, UP V Balikpapan with capacity 270,000 barrel/day, UP VI Balongan with capacity 125,000 barrel/day. And UP VII Kasim Irian Jaya with capacity 10,000 barrel/day. Hundreds thousand tons of sludge oil is estimated from the petroleum industrial activities. Right now sludge oil processing usually with manual cleaning and then directly injected into petroleum well so will cause pollution in surrounding area but more of them only store in the waste ponds. If the sludge oil is processed with pyrolysis so will be produced many products mainly useful oil, have economic value, can be reused again in petroleum process, and overcomes many environment problems.

Sludge oil have characteristic like mud so it is very difficult to be separated of the liquid fraction namely oil and water and also the solid fraction with sedimentation. With pyrolysis so the sludge oil will be separated based on the boiling points. Some products in the form, solid, liquid and gas will be obtained. Liquid product in the form of oil with plain chemical structure and can be mixed with water but then can be separated easily with decantation, the gas product contain with light gases can be burned like methane, then the solid product namely soil, sand, stone and organic char. The continuous pyrolyser can process sludge oil with large capacity. JF continuous pyrolysis with indirect heating is the equipment that can process the sludge oil with capacity up to 200 tons/day sludge oil (input). With low heating rate and maximum temperature in the range 500 C so the pyrolysis process can be operated well.

The various usage of pyrolysis oil in example for mixture of bunker oil, liquid fuel powerplant, burner fuel, can be reuse for petroleum refinery so the oil can be recovered more. For the excess gas product can be used for energy source or fuel in many sectors. And the last, the solid product can be used for building material and so on.

Minggu, 19 Maret 2017

Upgrade PKS with Torrefaction

Application of the tax on PKS (Palm Kernel Shell) based on the Minister of Finance Indonesia No 67/2010 on stipulation of export goods subject duties (Bea Keluar/ BK) has made the selling price in the international market or the export market to be high. The amount of export duties and export taxes which value is currently around US $ 15 / ton, making a number of parties thought to do the processing of the PKS. Enforcement of the above regulations is also intended to encourage the growth of domestic industry. PKS categorized as raw materials, thus further processing into a solution to it. The selling price of PKS from Indonesia less competitive, when compared before, because it becomes much more expensive.
The use of palm shells (PKS) today especially for fuel of large scale power plant. And in particular Japan and Korea are much in need of the PKS. The need also tends greater for the next few years. Japan, especially in the next 1-2 years the need is predicted to increase sharply as the operation of power plants using biomass and part of PKS as a mixture (co-firing) with coal.
 Torrefaction is biomass processing to increase the calorific value and improve its characteristics. With torrefaction the energy content in biomass increased by 20% and conversion rate reached 70%, or nearly three times the carbonization conversion were an average of 25%.  In addition to the torrefaction then torrefied PKS product will be hydrophobic so that it does not absorb water / moisture.  This will make it easier in terms of handling and storage. Furthermore, by compaction (densification) into pellets torrified PKS, the density also will increase, as well as the energy content per volume of it. Pelleting torrified PKS will save significant transportation costs from the manufacturer to the user. JFBC technology is able to perform continuous torrefaction process, with a production capacity up to 140 tonnes per day of torrified PKS.

Kamis, 09 Februari 2017

Continuous Pyrolysis Most Suitable For Bulk Raw Materials

Bulk raw materials such as palm shells, rice husks, sawdust, peanut shells, coffee husk and so, if will be charred or carbonized best suited with continuous pyrolysis. This is because the bulk of raw materials can flow or poured into a container such as a pipe. Retort type pyrolysis by an auger inside it will push along the retort and into charcoal at the outlet. JFBC continuous pyrolysis is one of them and is capable of producing charcoal up to 70 tonnes/day in its largest unit. Raw material with size upto 1 inch is accepted in the pyrolysis unit. It will be difficult when using batch pyrolysis because it will take a long time and process control also not easy. In the retort pyrolysis temperature, timing and heating rate control also easy to do. The process time on a continuous pyrolysis is also fast and very different to the type of batch that takes days and even up weekly.

In addition to the continuous pyrolysis will produce a number of side products that also have economic value, which is generally to be difficult in a batch pyrolysis. Pyrolysis by-products include wood vinegar / liquid smoke, bio-oil, tar and syngas. Utilization of wood vinegar / liquid smoke, among others as a fish preservative or rubber coagulant. Bio-oil is used as fuel for the boiler and can be upgraded to vehicle fuel. Tar also can be as fuel and syngas because large amount could be as a source of heat to electricity generation.
Some industries require charcoal in the size of the bulk because of the charcoal into a material that ready for them. Agricultural charcoal (biochar), charcoal for activated charcoal raw material in various purification industries from the food sector, mining and even oil and gas, hereinafter the steel industry and others. The bulk charcoal as raw material will reduce production costs for the downstream industry, if the particle size and shape according to the needs of the industry concerned or ready-made, so the cost of downsizing (size reduction) could be eliminated if use large-sized charcoals.

Kamis, 26 Juni 2014

Continuous Activated Carbon Production is More Efficient With Integration JF BioCarbon Continuous Carbonization and Rotating Kiln Activation Unit

Charcoal production as raw material of activated carbon with continuous slow pyrolysis (carbonization) technology very efficient in terms of the energy efficiency, product quality of charcoal is produced, the production process in an easy and environment friendly and many type of outputs is the produced by slow pyrolysis process beside the charcoal namely syngas, biooil  and biomass vinegar, which are all valued economically. Accurate process control as well as production capacity of medium-large scale highly profitable to process a large number of raw materials or that will make activated carbon plant in medium-large scale with high quality.

The size of activated carbon usually on granul or powder which is also very suitable with application of the technology. Charcoal production with JF BioCarbon technology for raw materials of activated carbon will be in the form of granul with capacity is around 20 tons to 70 tons per day which is processed by steam activating so that it would be activated carbon. With raw materials of charcoal is produced then activated carbon plant with capacity 6 - 25 tonnes per day can be made. Charcoal from coconut shell and palmkernel shell are the most common  used in the activated carbon production because its hardness. Iodine number is other parameter the quality of activated carbon besides its hardness. With steam activation, the iodine number that can be reached around 1000 while when combined with chemical activation then the iodine number that can be reached above 2500.

  By setting up the operational process condition such as temperature and residence time then charcoal with high fixed carbon can get and after the process conditions has been obtained for charcoal product with that specification that is desired then the hot charcoal can immediately feed into the  rotating kiln activation unit  without cooling beforehand, so that will save energy consumption significantly especially in the steam activation process. Syngas from pyrolysis will be used in the activation process to produce steam and keep the temperature of activation. Excess syngas after being used in process activation, then can be used to generate electricity or other energy source.

Selasa, 03 September 2013

Biochar: Low Carbon Economy As A Soution To Climate Change and the Environment

The high consumption of fossil fuels as the pedestal current economic activity has caused adverse effects on the environment such as the climate change and environmental issues. Accumulation of carbon dioxide concentration in the atmosphere that has exceeded the threshold needs to be reduced to the safe limit. Some things you can do include: improving energy efficiency of various equipment and machines today are still using fossil fuel, using fuel or renewable energy sources and absorb carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. When we review the balance of carbon emitted by the use of renewable fuels or substitution of fossil fuels with renewable energy is carbon neutral, while the absorption of carbon dioxide gas in the atmosphere is carbon negative.
Low-carbon economy as a solution to climate change and the environment is how economic sectors are encouraged to carbon neutral conditions even carbon negative. Biomass energy is one solution to achieve the low-carbon economy. Availability of biomass feedstock in Indonesia in particular, is very abundant and has a small part that is less than 5% is used as an energy source. The Optimum scenario of utilization the biomass into environmentally friendly forms of energy is the next questions when we has dropped the option to use as an energy source.
Continuous pyrolysis technology as a second generation biofuel technology is the best solution in order to establish the era of low-carbon economy. Products such as charcoal / biocharbiooil, and syngas will be generated by this technology. Especially biomass waste or organic waste can be directly processed at the site to produce the products as above. Agro-industry companies such as palm oil mill generate huge biomass waste every day. Indonesia and Malaysia as the largest palm oil producer in the world or around 87% of world production (2007) that had a lot of palm oil mills is estimated at more than 1,000 units, so that the biomass waste available is overwhelming.
Especially in palm oil industries, product biochar (charcoal) will have a major role to improve soil fertility, including reducing the need for chemical fertilizers (urea) in oil palm plantations, so it will be very profitable. A number of efforts have been carried out by the palm oil companies to increase their effectiveness in fertilization and soil enrichment, and with biochar is like like 1 shoot killed 2 birds, palm solid waste problem can be overcome, gain energy sources and improvement of soil fertility. Biochar (charcoal) in addition to be able to fertilize the soil is capable of capturing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere to a carbon negative mechanism, while biooil and syngas can be applied as a carbon neutral fuel because it comes from biomass.

Kamis, 22 Agustus 2013

The Urgency Palm Oil Waste Processing Plant

Production process of palm oil mills generate large amounts of waste every day. Untreated palm oil waste will only cause environmental problems. Orientation of the waste processing in addition to overcome the environment problem should also provide great added value for the oil palm business. Commonly palm oil mill waste is a dilemma between palm oil mill division with the palm oil plantation division, it is because the current practice of waste particularly empty fruit bunches (EFB) will generally be returned to the palm oil plantation to increase the soil fertility by composting. It means that palm oil waste is generated by the palm oil mill division, while the use of compost  is palm oil plantation division. Prior to use in plantation the waste also needs to be processed separately.

Judging from the process, biological composting process will take longer time and considerable a huge investment. Pyrolysis is a thermochemical process that is the best process for processing the empty fruit bunch. The main product of biochar can be applied as a medium to improve soil fertility and conserve the use of subsidized urea fertilizer in palm oil plantations, while biooil and syngas for energy applications. Application of pyrolysis system can also revolutionize the energy system in palm oil mill, so become more efficient and environmentally friendly.

Palm oil waste processing company that will become a stand-alone as alternative solution of the problem. Palm oil mill division will not be bothered for waste treatment especially empty fruit bunch while palm oil plantation division can directly get the product ready and apply for palm plantations as their responsibilty. The company is like a bridge between the two divisions and could be set up a separately or joint ventures with palm oil mill and palm oil plantations are best for the benefit of optimization.

Jumat, 02 Agustus 2013

Trilema of Energy, Economy and Environment

The big problem facing the world today is energy, economy and environment. All three are interrelated and influence each other. Solving the problem or solution to it can only be done in a comprehensive way, not partial, so that the sustainable development is possible.  That's bad idea when we just focusing on one aspect so the two other aspects are neglected thus enabling larger problem.

By the time the use of renewable energy will continue to increase of its role and will be the primary energy source at a time. This is inline with the public awareness of community for living environmentally and sustainable that continues to grow. Various regulations began to be developed and implemented to accelerate it.

Various scenarios were created for the implementation at application level. Processing biomass waste, organic waste and plastic waste and scrap tires with continuous pyrolysis technology is the best scenario to overcome Trilemma facing today.