Rabu, 03 Januari 2018

Biochar and IOT

The availability of nutrients for crops, especially food crops, to always produce maximum productivity is important for farmers. This is where biochar will help provide nutrients for the plant by making the soil microbials homes with pores, then with pores will also retain nutrients or fertilizers from leaching so that fertilization becomes effective and efficient. Biochar will also keep the organic moisture and carbon (C) needed for the plant. Organic farming that is currently widely developed will be in line with the use of biochar. The use of biochar with compost (solid organic fertilizer) is an application commonly used in organic farming and has been proven to give maximum results for the productivity of these plants. While the use of chemical fertilizers on the contrary will kill the soil microbes that will damage the chemical structure of the soil. Good soil should be like a fresh bread that expands with lots of pores in it, instead of like solid, hard bread.
Then what to do with IOT (InternetOf Things)? This IOT can later be used to measure and monitor the availability of nutrients or fertilizers for these plants, as well as various variables that affect plant growth such as air humidity, sunlight availability for photosynthesis, the presence of pests and so on. Parameter parameters will be displayed with the IOT app, which can be viewed with a personal computer (PC) or even with a smartphone or gadget in real time. With this IOT the soil conditions and nutritional availability can be measured and monitored. So the use of biochar can also be known how effective and efficient compared with not using biochar. 
The more measurable the condition and availability of nutrients or fertilizers in the soil, the easier it is for farmers to manage their farms. Fertilizers also need not be added again if known to be sufficient or otherwise. A number of studies with various experiments have shown that the use of biochar in agricultural land can reduce the use of  fertilizer up to 50%. Of course it is very interesting for farmers. With the IOT technology makes the existence of biochar increasingly known benefits so it will also be more widely used. For large biochar requirements, production with continuous pyrolysis technology is the best way.

Why Not For Coke Fuel Production?

"... And We sent down the iron upon which there is great power and the benefit of men (that they may use it) ..." (QS al Hadid: 25)

If it were not iron, the earth would not have a magnetic field that holds the atmosphere and hydrosphere and all life forms on its surface. If it were not for the iron derived from the sky, there is no life on earth because iron forms a very important constituent of human hemoglobin and various types of animals. Iron is also a very important constituent of chlorophyll, a vital substance needed in the plant life cycle.

The hard core of the earth (with 90% iron structure, 9% Nickel, 1% other elements) and liquid core (which has the same chemical structure). In addition, three layers of wrapping, in which the ratio of iron decreases from the inside to the outside. Following the next layer is the bottom of the lithosphere, followed by the top of the lithosphere (crust) which contains 5.6% iron. The amount of iron exceeds 1/3 of the earth's estimated mass of 6,000 million million million tonnes.

Very much the use of iron in human life, or almost in all places or areas of human life always utilize materials from iron. The progress of a country is also closely related to the progress of its iron processing industry. By looking at history we know that the progress of the Japanese nation in its various products also starts from the processing of its iron-steel. The iron industry is the basic industry that supports various downstream industries. Steel is an iron-processing product that uses a lot in industry, construction and infrastructure, so it has a strategic role in the physical development of a country.
Coke fuel from coal
Coke is a fuel commonly used for iron processing. This coke is made from coal through pyrolysis process of carbonization. With coke made the quality of coal is enhanced by the increase in calorific value due to higher fixed carbon and reduced volatile materials. The value of the coke calorie ranges from 8,000 kcal / kg so that it is hot enough to melt or melt iron in the process. By-products such as benzol (liquid product) and syngas (gas product) will also be produced from the coke production process, so it will give interesting benefits. With continuous pyrolysis technology, the solid product of coke can be maximized, different when using gasification technology used to maximize its gas product (syngas). Cokes fuel are used for the production of steel with blast furnaces and with iron ore for raw materials. The steel quality produced by blast furnace is also better, compared to using induction furnace. 

Indonesia's coal exports are currently at 300 million tons annually and some of them are for power plants with steam turbine and industries. Almost all of the coal being exported is raw coal, which does not undergo processing, so the added value is also small. What if coal exports are processed coal that adds great value? Of course it is better. Coke making from coal is one such option. If during this coke production is usually only done by large companies, then with JF continuous pyrolysis unit then coke production can be done for medium scale. Middle class coal entrepreneurs are very likely to also produce this coke.
JF Pyrolysis Unit
As a hydrocarbon compound such as petroleum, so the side products of coal or coke production, both gas and liquid products, can also be utilized by various chemical industries, such as petrochemical industry, polymer industry (plastic) and so on. When a lot of coke production in a number of coal mining centers, the side products produced are also large. It will be able to replace hydrocarbons as raw materials of various petrochemical industries in Indonesia today. When raw materials for the petrochemical industry are produced domestically then the price can also be cheap. Moreover, Indonesia is currently a net importer for petroleum, so that the various products that can be produced from coal that can substitute the products of the petroleum oil in addition to reducing imports also grow the coal industry.

Senin, 25 Desember 2017

Syngas Cleaning And Operation Time For Private/Independent Power Providers (IPP)

The continuity and stability of the electricity supply to the buyer is the most important thing for the private power provider or the Independent Power Producer (IPP). Electrical buyers in general are government through PLN or industry. To be able to provide such a continuous and stable electricity supply, IPP strives in such a way in a variety of ways including its various process engineering and also the operational. Biomass is a renewable energy source for electricity production that has many advantages especially in Indonesia, for example when wind and water (hydro) power plants are severely affected by weather conditions, the biomass power plant is not affected. Even high rainfall and tropical climate will increase the production of biomass as a source of energy. Related to the use of gas from biomass there are two routes to produce gas that is biology route and thermochemical route. The biological route is by fermentation in the digester, while the thermal route with gasification and pyrolysis. The characteristics of the raw material will determine the choice of technology, whether by biological route or thermochemical. Liquid waste or high water content and easy rot, such as livestock manure and palm oil mill effluent (POME) will use biological route, whereas biomass which is not easy to decompose such as woody biomass thermochemical route becomes the choice.

Why need to extract gas from the biomass? This is in addition to improving efficiency, also facilitate the utilization. Even by extracting the gas will also produce a number of economic value-added byproducts, for example with pyrolysis technology in addition to generating electricity, by-products such as charcoal, biooil, and biomass vinegar (liquid smoke). The economic value of these byproducts are bigger than the electricity production. The gas composition of the various biomasses also varies, depending on the biomass and the technology used, for example in biogas of large methane gas composition (55-75%), gasification of methane gas composition 0.5-3% while in pyrolysis gas composition methane 4-11%. Gas engine is a equipment or device commonly used to convert the combustible gas into electricity. Gas turbine although efficiency is higher but rarely used because of operational and maintenance factors are more difficult. Steam turbine is also rarely used and commonly used in large capacity power plants (> 20 MW). While Stirling engine and ORC (Organic Rankine Cycle) technology can also use gas from the biomass, but it is not specific because both Stirling engine and ORC only require heat for its operation and it does not have to be from gas. Practically both technologies above are using a lot of combustion to obtain the required heat.
Stirling Engine
ORC Technology
Gas Turbine
Gas Engine
The problem of purity or cleanliness of the gas that resulted in the operation of private power plants (IPP) received serious attention. The cleaner the gas and the stable the gas supply so the more stable the operation of the power plant and the opposite. The purchaser or user of electricity also requires the amount of electricity supply and tolerance to the breaking or shutting down of electricity at a certain time which must be fulfilled by the provider or private power producer. Various gas cleaning technologies have been used to obtain clean and stable gas supply to the converting equipments used. Gas cleaning technology in addition must be cheap and also easy to use so that electricity providers remain profitable. In general, the gas cleaning technology is to clean the gas from its impurities including also reduce or eliminate the gases that potentially disrupt the operation of such conversion equipments. For example CO2 and H2S gases in biogas process or tar in gasification and pyrolysis. 
Water scrubber (absorber) and stripper unit for biogas refinery
JF BioCarbon continuous pyrolysis technology is the best choice of electricity production from biomass with thermal route. This is in addition to generated electricity, also produced side products that are not less profitable, namely charcoal, biooil, and biomass vinegar. Then how about cleaning the gas so that the power supply electricity continuously? With a number of line cleaning units that work alternately, the continuity of the supply of clean gas can continue to run so also with the supply of electricity. A number of sensors are installed to ensure the cleanliness of the gas. Downtime or power outages will be reduced or even eliminated. Sufficient gas cleaning will ensure the continuous operation of the gas engine generator as a conversion unit from pyrolysis gas (chemical energy) to heat and mechanical energy (reciprocating engine in gas engine) and generate electricity. It is time for private power companies (IPP) to consider slowpyrolysis technology to continue as a wise and best choice for the production of electricity from biomass and a number of byproducts that are very profitable.

Senin, 13 November 2017

Palm Kernel Shell Continuous Pyrolysis For Multipurpose Production

Production of palm kernel shells (PKS) which is palm oil mill waste in Indonesia approximately 9 million tons. Current utilization of 20% (1.8 million tons) for export, 15% (1.35 million tons) for internal use, 10% (0.9 million tons) for domestic (local) use, and the remaining 55% (4.95 million tons) yet used or become waste. Meanwhile, Indonesia's CPO production currently reaches 35.2 million tons, or 20% of FFB (Fresh Fruit Bunch), so the number of FFB (Fresh Fruit Bunch) produced in Indonesia currently ranges from 176 million tons. With an average productivity of 20 tons / hectare of FFB, so the FFB is generated from 8.8 million hectares. While the total area of ​​oil palm plantations in Indonesia is currently estimated to have almost 12 million hectares including unfruitful and unproductive age or need to be replanting. Another influential factor is the low level of productivity of oil palm plantations. Palm kernel shells are only about 6% of the FFB produced, and after is used for the internal CPO production process in the mill  with mesocarp, only about 4.5% of the palm kernel shell is the waste of the palm factory. From there it can also be calculated that every hectare of oil palm plantation will produce 1.2 tons or three quarters namely 0.9 tons of waste. With the current expansion of oil palm plantations up to 12 million hectares, the potential of palm kernel shells that become waste in the palm oil plant around 10.8 million tons or the amount of 10.8 million tons that can be used for export, fuel and production of various other products or external use.
Currently, there are a number of parties who have utilized the palm kernel shells for electricity production and boilers of some industries that are estimated to be less than 10% of the total produced palm shells. Some converting technologies into heat and electricity are used for processing such palm kernel shells. Combustion and gasification are technologies commonly used to convert or extract palm kernel shells into heat and electricity. Combustion technology in the furnace then combined ORC (Organic Rankine Cycle) and Stirling engine to convert it into electricity. While the gas from gasification is then used as fuel in gas engine to generate electricity. Are there any other options for processing the palm kernel shell so that it has bigger added value or more profitable?

Palm kernel shells are not suitable for biogas production because the lignoselulose material or rich lignin content material making it difficult to biologically decompose. The choice is pyrolysis or thermal decomposition with absence of oxygen. Pyrolysis is a technology that can to produce charcoal, biooil, pyro acid and syngas. This is what makes it possible for multipurpose production. Palm kernel shells such as rice husks, sawdust and the like are bulk materials also so will be suitable for continuous pyrolysis. How come? The answer is because there are several options for using the continuous pyrolysis:

1. Production of electricity and charcoal 

2. Production of electricity and activated charcoal

3. Production of electricity and charcoal briquettes

4. Production of charcoal and bio-chemicals

5. Production of charcoal and biofuel

6. Production of Charcoal and heat

At the production of electricity and charcoal, the process of excess syngas is used for electricity production, and charcoal is also produced as a solid product of pyrolysis. The charcoal can also be made briquette so it will be efficient during transportation and its use. As for the production of electricity and activated carbon, then excess syngas is used for the process of activation of the charcoal produced, with a more detailed explanation can be read here. In addition to charcoal, bio-chemicals such as acetic acid, methanol and phenol can also be produced by processing further byproducts namely pyro acid and syngas. Biofuels namely, biooil and syngas can also be additional products besides charcoal. Syngas can also be packed in a tube for ease of distribution and usage. Meanwhile, if syngas and biooil are burned it will generate heat, so if the business of charcoal production in combination with agriculture such as the use of green house or also farms that require a warm certain temperature the continuous pyrolysis unit becomes also very effective to be used. 
Charcoal production from palm kernel shells can also be a solution to the high export tax of palm kernel shells. By processing it into finished product then the tax should be decreased even eliminated because there has been industrialization which also absorb labor and encourage economic growth. In private power producers or IPP (Independent Power Producer), the additional product namely of charcoal will provide an increase business revenue, so that their business becomes more attractive business. In addition to charcoal production, if you want the production of high quality solid fuel (solid biomass fuel) namely by upgrading or processing it with torrefaction, can be done also with pyrolysis technology.

Selasa, 18 Juli 2017

Biochar To Make Land Like White Bread For Optimum Organic Farming

..... And you see the earth dried up at first, then when We send down water upon it, live the earth, and be the land, and grow all kinds of beautiful plants. "- (QS 22: 5)

Soil is a medium for the growth of plants, more specialized crops that are cultivated by humans to meet their needs through agriculture / plantation and forestry. Good soil will produce high quality agricultural products with a large quantity. But getting the ideal soil especially for the farming business is not an easy thing nowadays because of several things. First the destruction of the soil due to the use of chemical fertilizers that turned out to be in the long run damaged the soil, as experienced by most agricultural land today. The second factor is the limitation of land due to its massive use of land for housing, industry and so on. The third factor is irresponsible farming such as mobile agriculture. The fourth factor is human effort to take irresponsible natural resources as commonly happened in mining, illegal logging and so on. Any farming business also begins with recognizing the type of land and its character, it shows how important the land is.

Chemical fertilizers mainly as the biggest and main cause of the damage for current agricultural lands. This is because chemical fertilizers cause physical, chemical and biological damage to the soil. The soil becomes hard, lacks nutrients (barren) and the death of soil microbes. The death of soil microbes is the source of the biggest problem causing the damage to the soil. This is because soil microbes play an important role to continue to maintain soil fertility. A handful of fertile soil contains 2 billion microbes that run each other prey and fight over food in the ground. The activity of running microbes that prey on each other in the soil, causing the ground to vibrate and become hollow. Hollow soil is loosening and improving soil aeration that also helps to fertilize the soil. The presence of water entering the soil will be absorbed by the plants as well as the needs of these microbes. Why chemical fertilizers should be avoided? This is because chemical fertilizers make acid soil that kills the soil microbes, so the consequences are very fatal. The synthesis or decomposition of organic materials also involves these microbial activities.

The ideal soil is fertile, with parable like white bread,soft and hollow. Soft and hollow because of the soil microbial activity that forms the structure and cavity. These conditions make optimal plant growth because the roots can freely absorb nutrients in the soil for growth. The reverse is barren land, with a metaphor like the pathetic bread, which is hard and solid. Hard and solid due to the absence or lack of microbes in the soil. These conditions make plant growth disturbed and will not be optimal. Water also will not be well absorbed in the soil condition. Well, what if the cavities or pores in the soil are reproduced and even made a special house for microbes? Of course microbial activity is getting bigger and growing. "White bread" is even more tender and hollow / porous. Does the cavity or pore serve only as a microbial house? Apparently not. The cavities or pores also improve the soil structure of aeration and are also able to withstand the soil nutrients from loss due to leaching / washing.
Furthermore, the pores are also able to absorb CO2 gas from the atmosphere. CO2 gas is one of the greenhouse gases that causes the earth's temperature increase. The higher concentrations of CO2 gas in the atmosphere further increase the earth's temperature, the occurrence of climate change and global warming. The absorption of CO2 gas to be stored in the soil is a negative carbon scenario. The pores are more specifically subdivided into macropore, mesopore and micropore. CO2 is mainly absorbed in the micropre. Further discussion on the problem of pores and its application on the production process of activated charcoal (activated carbon).
What materials that can add pores to microbial homes, improve soil structure, retain soil nutrients from leaching and even absorb CO2 from the atmosphere? The material is biochar or agricultural charcoal made through the process of pyrolysis or biomass carbonization such as agricultural wastes. Biochar can also increase the pH so that the soil microbial life more optimal. Biochar is widely used with compost in organic farming. The use of charcoal (biochar) as a medium for planting itself is not new, but the use of biochar as part of problem solving in the world of extensive and contemporary agriculture is new in particular to repair the soil damage caused by chemical fertilizers. Why use biochar for such improvements? Is it not enough with compost? Biochar works to accelerate and maintain soil fertility. "Pathetic breads" is harder and longer transformed into "white breads" with only compost. High agricultural productivity becomes an easy thing to achieve with land such as "fresh bread". The "fresh bread" is as the Quran suggests ihtazzat warabbat - earth that vibrates and expands (QS 22: 5) because there is water and microbial activity in it. And such conditions are sought as ideal conditions for agriculture.

In forestry areas it would be more appropriate to use leguminoceae to make the earth vibrate and expand (ihtazzat warabbat), this is because the soil microbial plant in the legume root is able to bind the nitrogen (N) element of the atmosphere so that it will fertilize the soil. Energy production such as wood pellets with legumes plantations / forest such as gliricidae and calliandra are more suitable for forestry. While the wood is processed into wood pellets, while the leaves can be for sheep / goats. Deep rooting and strong also makes the legume forest able to withstand erosion and retain water, which at times can even bring up springs.

Jumat, 14 Juli 2017

Biochar, Urban Farming and Drip Irrigation

Urban Farming in Chicago, US
Efforts for food self-sufficiency must be done in various ways including overcoming the limitations of agricultural land that occur due to use for settlement / housing. In line with this FAO also launched a zero hunger or free hunger for the world population in 2030. The package was formulated in Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) consisting of 17 targets including the zero hunger. The narrowness of urban land is not an obstacle to participate in the fulfillment of these food needs. Agriculture in cities has also begun to flare up today, both in developed economic countries such as the United States and Europe as well as in a number of major cities in Indonesia. Urban farming attracts a lot of urban residents because in addition to adequate food, as well as relaxation and tourism. Currently approximately 50% of urban residents who work to get food sufficient so it will also be greatly helped by doing urban agricultural activity. High levels of congestion, air pollution, and various other common social factors in urban areas become stressful and make urban farming activities a place to relieve stress or relaxation. Especially in the next few years the population of Indonesia in particular, predicted the percentage of people who live in the city far more than those living in the village.
Efficiency becomes the keyword for agriculture on such limited land, both media efficiency, water efficiency, maintenance efficiency, fertilizer efficiency and so on which is now termed into precision farming. The world needs food additions of up to 70% to 2050 while the land continues to decrease, as does the quality of the water and the air. So precision farming and IoT (Internet of Things) can be a great solution for that. For example the idea of ​​precision agriculture and IoT on palm oil plantations can be read here. Various efforts are used to achieve the best level of precision one of them with the use of internet or IoT. Biochar or charcoal from biomass can be used for efficiency of planting medium, fertilizer and water. The biochar pores will retain water and fertilizer and become the site of the decomposing bacteria so that it is more available to the plant and ultimately increases the yield productivity. The next water efficiency is by drip irrigation. The water requirement on the plant is basically needed continuously although the amount is small. Drip irrigation is able to do so in the roots of the plant. The mechanism is similar to fertilization, ie slow release fertilizer and with biochar the release mechanism can be achieved, so as with the use of drip irrigation in irrigation, effective and high efficiency can be achieved as well. Mulch can also help improve the efficiency of water use by reducing evaporation and cooling the soil surface temperature.
Then how rural people if urban already able to meet the needs of food, especially vegetables? Keep in mind that vegetables that are in urban areas today come from a place far away even hundreds of kilometers away. Of course in addition to expensive transportation costs are also vegetables are not really fresh, because from harvesting, transportation, until the market up to the buyer usually takes more than 2 days. When the vegetables can be produced in urban areas that are very close to the buyer then the expensive costs can be avoided and vegetables are also fresh because it has just been picked. The rural community will be the producer of seeds from the vegetables. Seeds of vegetables in the form of grains will be easy and cheap transportation. Seeds for the seedlings are expensive to provide an attractive income for the producers of these
The vast lands in the countryside can also be planted with various kinds of fruit trees and various farms such as sheep grazing. Fruits will be a source of vitamins, sheep and livestock as a source of protein, and vegetables as a source of fiber and minerals, so that everything is complementary. Besides the vast lands in the countryside even in hilly or mountainous areas can also be used for energy plantations. Biomass fuel, especially wood pellet can be for substitution of various fossil fuels, especially petroleum and coal. Plants such as calliandra and gliricidae are great for the energy plantations, and even be integrated with sheep farms like the 5F project scenario for the world! The current condition of Indonesia that has become a petroleum importer should also encourage the use of energy from biomass especially wood pellets by promoting energy plantations. Energy development using energy plantations or trees are also in accordance with the Qur'an, for more details can be read here. Then man is commanded to prosper the earth (QS 11:61), to be told how to live the dead earth (QS 36:33), to be told how to fertilize it (QS 22: 5), how to maximize its crop yield (QS 16:10 -11), and even modeled on the success of good earth management (QS 34:15).
Do energy plantations need to be added with biochar? The answer is not necessary because the energy plantations uses leguminoceae (QS 36: 33) which can even turn the dead soil with its root ability by binding nitrogen from the atmosphere. Over time the land will become fertile, and can be used for various other farms. Biochar is suitable for increasing the productivity of various agricultural crops, especially outside the leguminoceae crop. More specifically for a variety of urban and palm oil agriculture, high soil fertility is needed.

Senin, 03 Juli 2017

The Role of Biochar In Era of Precision Farming and IoT in Palm Oil Plantations

Palm oil is not native to Indonesia but it is from West Africa and originally brought by Dutch colonialists. Initially only 4 palm oil seedlings were planted in the Bogor Botanical Garden but now they have been planted into plantations with an area of ​​nearly 9 million hectares, while Malaysia 5 million hectares. Currently Indonesia is the world's largest producer of palm oil, beating Malaysia with CPO production of more than 23 million tonnes / year with the number of oil palm mills reaching more than 600. Right now approximately 1,100 palm mills in Southeast Asia, and majority in Indonesia and Malaysia. Palm oil and its derivative products have become the largest foreign exchange earners of the plantation sector for Indonesia. The palm oil and its derivative products are divided into several groups namely CPO (crude plam oil), refined products of CPO, palm kernel oil (PKO), refined products of PKO, biodiesel and oleo-chemical. Naturally, palm oil business is a concern for many parties because of its role in the economic sector, which includes agriculture, industry and trade. The optimization of palm oil business continues to be done continuously for the sustainibility.
Palm Oil Monument in Bogor Botanical Garden, West Java, Indonesia

Optimalization in the agricultural sector, now it is time for  Indonesia for doing intensification so that palm oil productivity can be improved. When efficiency is increased, productivity will increase as well as the profits of the palm oil business. Precision farming and internet use (IoT = Internet of Things) are timed for use in the palm plantations. With precision farming and IoT, the need or dose of palm oil fertilizers or nutrients will be adjusted as needed, and real time soil fertility conditions and various agricultural variables can also be viewed and monitored carefully with apps or websites. The advantages and disadvantages of fertilizers or nutrients of both macro elements such as NPK and micro elements such as Fe, Mn, B, Mo, Cl, Cu, Zn in certain zones of oil palm plantations can be immediately detected, as well as various disturbances in oil palm plantations such as drought, wild pigs, pests and so on. The sensors installed in the palm oil plantation will then work with telemetry so all the data can be displayed on the screen to be analyzed and searched for the solution.

Isn't the palm oil area tens of thousands to hundreds of thousands hectares area? How to monitor and process the data? The more sensors installed in the palm oil plantations , the conditions will be more accurate reported. If we visit a modern chemical plant with sophisticated control room, see dashboard in cockpit plane or car dashboard and so then operational condition can be monitored easily. The more sophisticated the vehicle or factory then the look in the 'control room' is also more complete and sophisticated. So that's how to monitor the 'operating conditions' of the palm oil plantation with tens or even hundreds of thousands of hectares. Without knowing the condition of the plantation is like a driver driving in the 'dark', gasoline run out do not know, the engine overheating is also not known and so forth. Of course that is a high risk, many palm oil plantation failed or a lack of production due to various things 'dark' is. Thousands of data with many varieties of plantation condition then be collected and with big data can be mapped and analyzed for mapping also for the solution.

Soil fertility is vital to the farm / plantation business more specifically in palm oil plantations, so the effort to continue to maintain soil fertility should receive great attention. Of course there are many ways to continue to keep the soil fertility, including fertilization, the use of charcoal (biochar) and sheep grazing. Charcoal (biochar) is proven to increase soil fertility by keeping soil moisture, a microbial soil, retaining leaching, increasing soil pH, adding soil organic carbon and improving soil structure. Even with regard to climate change and the environment, the soil (biochar) that is introduced to the soil also absorbs carbon from CO2 from the atmosphere (carbon sequestration). Biochar can also survive hundreds or even thousands of years in the soil so that the benefits are very long.

There are several scenarios to produce biochar on palm oil business. Solid waste from palm oil mills such as empty bunches (EFB), fiber and shell can be used for the production of biochar. Simple to most advanced technologies can be utilized for the production of the biochar. On a large scale or industrial biochar production using continuous pyrolysis (carbonization) technology such as JFBC. The continuous pyrolysis or carbonization may be part of the palm oil mill or CPO production as can be read here or stand alone eg using only EFB as the raw material of the pyrolysis. The high cost of fertilization or efforts to maintain soil fertility so that biochar applications have a high level of urgency as described here.
Other efforts to maintain the soil fertility of palm oil plantations with sheep grazing. Why sheep grazing can fertilize the land of palm oil plantations? Yes, because when sheep are grazed among palm oil plantations also dump the dirt in the place, so the grass between the palm oil plantation should is not eradicated but maintained for the farm business. The sheep dung become fertilizer that fertilizes the soil. Why for sheep grazing? Why not grazing cattle or buffalo? This is because sheep farms produce more meat than cows or buffalo. The lamb/sheep is the best meat and is the world healthiest food, which is grass-fed sheep or shepherded on the grass. Grass-fed sheep will produce Omega-6 to Omega 3 ratio (O6 / O3 ratio) ranging from 1 or balanced. The Omega-6 ratio to Omega 3 states that the quality of food is in terms of health, with a range of 1 at its best or a balanced condition whereas if the O6 / O3 ratio is greater then the lower the quality of the food. Meanwhile, if big livestock such as sheep are fed grains such as soybean-based O6 / O3 ratio will be big ie 13 or more. High O6 / O3 ratio will spur the onset of heart disease, cancer and other cardiovascular diseases.The second driving force is the low consumption of meat for Indonesian which according to FAO is only 12.9 kg / year / capita or below the world average reaching 41.9kg / year / capita. The population of Indonesia with the consumption of sheep meat is very minimal or only 1/20 than the population of Australia and New Zealand but it turns the ratio of heart attacks and strokes is much higher or about 3 times the population of Australia and New Zealand. This proves that there is no relation to the consumption of sheep meat with heart disease or stroke - which is the animal of choice in the Qur'an and the shepherding of these Prophets! Sheep needs for export market especially Middle East and Saudi Arabia especially during haj season is also very high, around 8 million/year. Sheep dung will also be distributed more evenly in the palm oil plantation. Sheep breeding in the palm oil plantation will also increase profits for the palm oil plantation business itself. Even because of the vastness of palm oil plantations reaching 9 million hectares, the potential benefits are also tremendous.

As a Muslim, sheep animals also have significance. Why? In the Qur'an Surah Al An'am (6): 143-144 among eight animals in pairs (4 pairs) are two (one pair) sheep, a pair of goats, a pair of camels and a pair of cattle and sheep mentioned in the first order, of course this sheep has its own privileges, among others, sheep selected as the best animal qurban (QS Ash Shaaffaat (37): 107) and animals that are pastored by all prophets. By shepherding it among the palm oil trees, sheep farms are cheap because they feed on the grasses among the trees.
With the precision farming technology and IoT as tools applied to the palm oil plantations whose essence is to continuously monitor and maintain soil fertility and plantation maintenance by analyzing a number of variables related to the goal of optimizing palm oil production, the palm oil plantation will continues to be sustainable. Making all business activities of the palm is integrated and comprehensive with attention to environmental factors, good business management and take responsibility and with the utilization of latest technology in addition to a great opportunity to be a leader in this line of business is also the prosperity of the earth, such as the command of Allah SWT in the Qur ' An Surah Huud (11): 61.