Senin, 24 Desember 2012

"Carbon Farming" for Palm Oil Plantation part VI: Think Sustainability, Think Biochar

When we think about the sustainability of palm oil, we would think about the sustainability of palm fruit production and that means thinking about the management of the plantation itself. And talk about the management of palm oil plantations mean can not be separated bymaintaining soil fertility. Efforts to maintain the fertility of the soil is an ongoing effort as the palm oil plantation business. Biochar is one of the excellent material in maintaining soil fertility.
Biochar from JF BioCarbon

Biomass wastes that are highly abundant in palm oil is a potential feedstock for biochar production while continous slow pyrolysis technology will continue also produced green energy for processing in the palm oil mill. A business that zero waste in its operations that sustain the production of palm trees. Thinking about the sustainability of palm oil plantations means thinking about biochar.

Biochar, Climate Change and Global Warming

This time is the topic of climate change and global warming back into the world spotlight. Frameworks Convention annual meeting of theUnited Nations Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) was opened last week took place in Doha, Qatar with 15000 people are expected to participate. The emphasis today is more necessary action as compared to the previous conference. In the 18th climate change conference (COP18) is getting a lot of evidence of natural disasters due to climate change are shown.

Mitigation of climate change and global warming would cost billions of dollars. The Climate Policy Initiative is make estimation need around  US $ 300 billion each year in 2020 and increased to US $ 500 billion by 2030. While the commitment of industrialized countries only allocate US$ 100 billion  annually in the UNFCCC's GreenClimate Fund.

Role of Biochar
Although it has not received great attention in efforts to mitigate climate change-related disasters and global warming, in fact biochar potential as a tool that a lot of benefits. When we look at the motives for biochar production would look like this chart:

In the first study on the impact of climate change in SouthEast Asia by the Asian Development Bank (ADB) in 2009: based on high emissions scenario, average temperatures in four countries-Indonesia, Philippines, Thailand and Vietnam - is projected to rise 4.8 degrees Celsius in 2100 from 1990 levels, average global sea level rise is 70 cm long time, and Indonesia, Thailand and Vietnam is projected to experience the drier climate in two or three decades. Southeast Asia seems more affected by climate change than the global average.

Indonesia and Malaysia as a tropical country with a very rich potential of waste biomass mainly from agro-industries such as oil industry, the potential for applying biochar appropriate motivation in the image above. MPOB (Malaysian Palm Oil Board) specifically researching biochar to plant oil palm. Implementing Continuous Slow Pyrolysis technology with waste biomass feedstock will produce environmentally friendly energy that are categorized as "Carbon Neutral" because the balance does not increase the amount of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, while the application of biochar as a by-product on the farm in addition will increase the fertility of the soil is also able to absorb greenhouse gases in the atmosphere that are categorized as "Carbon Negative" because the balance will reduce the concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. So with the application of Continous Slow Pyrolysis and product of biochar will get the optimum comprehensive solution to the scheme shown above which was instrumental in reducing the effects of climate change and global warming.

 The use of technology "carbon capture and storage" usually by injecting CO2 emissions from fossil-fueled power plants (as a CO2 gas producer unit or the biggesr greenhouse gases  currently) into the earth very expensive investment, so the need for the use of environmentally friendly renewable energy-biomassbased with Slow Continuous Pyrolysis technology and application biochar as its product will receive great attention soon.

Sabtu, 15 Desember 2012

"Carbon Farming" For Palm Oil Plantation Part 5: Organic Palm Oil Plantations

Although currently not pictured on organic palm oil plantations. But organic palm oil plantation is possible in the coming era. Biochar application on palm oil plantation which is very effective for the home of microbes so as to enrich the soil. Microbes such as mooring N and so can be inoculated in the biochar application. While the nutritional requirements of bacteria in biochar will then be supplied from manure, so the integration of oil palm plantations and cattle ranches is imperative.

When this has been done then the contribution to saving the environment and food security is huge. Substantial revenue will come from the amount of carbon absorbed by the application of biochar through mechanisms such as CDM and organic palm oil products has its own market segment.
photo is taken from here

"Carbon Farming" for Palm Oil Plantation Part 4: Misperceptions Between Biochar and Ash

photo is taken from here

Because biochar application to palm oil plantations are new, many of those who do not know and tend to equalize between biochar and ash as fertilizer for palm oil plantations. Though both are clearly very different. Judging from the occurrence of the biochar and the ash is very different. Biochar produced from pyrolysis process while the ash generated from the direct combustion (incinerator) or gasification.

Judging from biochar also many different functions of the ashes just as low quality mineral fertilizers, because biochar could be a home of microbes that will increase the soil fertility. Here are some of the reasons for the agricultural use of biochar:
-Reducing requirements for other inputs, such as conventional fertilizer
-Absorption of carbon from the atmosphere to reduce the concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere
-Increase yield by overcoming obstacles to growth (eg, poor soil structure, low pH, etc.)
-Improve the quality of plant growth by overcoming obstacles (eg, poor nutrient absorption resulting in low protein content)
-Remediation of contaminated soil
-Improve the physical or aesthetic properties of the soil or growing media (for example, make it dark, lowering the density of pores or give to the soil and so on)
Biochar production process with continuous slow pyrolysis technology is also very environmentally friendly because the emission gas well below the permitted threshold. While the direct burning incinerator technology has not allowed for reasons of emission gas and ash byproduct of low economic value.

"Carbon Farming" for Palm Oil Plantation Part 3: Economics of Technology Implementation

photo is taken from here

Basically, the conversion of biomass to the various technologies will face the final question about how much the economy in the form of investment and how much value added is generated. In many cases in Indonesia many biomass thermal conversion technology like gasification have not found economical and finally the equipment does not operate (idle) and as a result are generally the technology is not well developed. In the case of gasification which produce electricity, cost components that greatly affect their economic  is the price of raw materials, equipment investment and the selling price the electric. In fact most gasification in operation condition because the gasification groove is used for own use.

While many tools are being prepared for economical aspect of biomass thermal conversion technology, the continuous slow pyrolysis plant for own-use in palm oil mill will give a huge advantage for being able to meet the energy needs and improve the soil fertility of their plantation. For the implementation of continous slow pyrolysis technology, ultimately the question that arises again is its economic factor "how big an investment for equipment / unit / technology" and "how much value added generated". Check out our presentation to help you make a decision.

Jumat, 14 Desember 2012

Carbon Farming For Palm Oil Plantation Part 2

Leading plantations and agronomist are searching for better ways to manage land for higher production and healthier profit, as well as a buffer against Climate Change. Soil Health is widely recognized as the key to these benefits, and Soil Carbon is the key to Soil Health.

Carbon Farming is the land management system that is the most effective in responding to Climate Change. It can be used to build a buffer against higher temperatures and lower rain fall. It can cut input costs as it taps into the nutrient reserves and productive capacity hidden in the soil. Carbon farming is the only way to increase soil carbon which the engine room of growth in Agriculture. 
photo taken from here
Increasing soil carbon is likely to enhance the long term sustainability of farms as it plays a central role in the physical, chemical, and biological health of the soil and hence the productive capacity of arable soils. Increasing the biomass input, decreasing the decomposition rate and increasing the potential of a soil to store carbon will all act to increase soil carbon. Soils with the greatest potential to sequester carbon will be those that have suffered a  significant loss of carbon with clearing of native vegetation and have a capacity to increase biomass production or can protect added carbon from decomposition (Baldock et al 2009).

Farmers wanting to build soil carbon may be able to achieve this though maintaining and enhancing vegetation cover, maximizing vegetation growth, minimizing soil disturbance, and changing the soil texture. Activities that broad acre farmers may consider to increase soil carbon include :
·        -Converting cropping land to productive pastures and increasing the pasture phases in crop rotation
·         -Increasing practices to retain stubble
·         -Green manuring, particularly legume crops
·         -The application of soil ameliorants such as biochar, compost, or manure  (Sanderman et al 2010), and
·         -Alterations to soil texture through the addition of clay to lighter textured soils.

Photo taken from here
Palm oil industry in Indonesia & Malaysia which in operations generate a lot of waste biomass and on the other hand requires energy in the form of heat and electricity for the process of the fruits and high productivity of palm oil plants, then very potential to apply the continous slow pyrolysis technology to get energy and biocharnya to carbon farming.
photo's taken from here

Carbon farming is a different way of looking at your land. It gives you a different set of priorities, if you get it right, it can deliver everything you ever wanted to get out of farming. And more…..

Sabtu, 01 Desember 2012

"Carbon Farming" for Palm Oil Plantation Part 1

Fertilization in palm plantation business is costly, even this is the highest cost component of the business. Fertilization is a vital activity to the success and sustainability of the business. Fertilization get a portion of 65% and up in the plantation-based business expenses. Analogues same as livestock business that feed holds the highest component of about 80 percent. Thus reducing the need for fertilizer will benefit the business. Moreover, chemical fertilizers are used in the oil palm plantation business are also non-subsidized. There are a number of efforts that can be done to reduce the fertilizer, which in essence is to increase the efficiency of absorption of the fertilizer for plants.

Basically plants will always require fertilizer in certain amount as the nutrients for the growth and productivity of fruit. Thus ensuring adequate fertilizer as the nutrition for the palm trees are principles that should be sought for this business. In fact, to provide a sufficient number of that is costly, due to a variety of site-specific environmental factors such as palm oil is located. Fertilizer in general will be a lot of washed / leaching (50% in average) giving rise to much waste to the detriment of the economy. It can not be allowed to continue and need immediate solutions to overcome them.
Photo taken from here
Application of biochar is one perfect solution for it. CPO plant every day produces excess waste biomass will potentially be used for biochar feedstock. Production of biochar by JF BioCarbon continous slow pyrolysis  reliable to process the amount of waste biomass. In addition to producing biochar also be produced green energy (renewable energy) that can be used for the industrial production of CPO or its various derivatives. Current regulation that prohibits direct burning of biomass waste with the incinerator will further strengthen the continuous slow pyrolysis technology as the best solution for the problem.

There are many scenarios that we can use for biochar application in palm oil plantations, among others enriched with chemical fertilizers (NPK), enriched with compost (and plus mulch), or adding a bacteria that contributes greatly to soil enrichment. If your palm oil industry have a concept for prioritizing environmentally friendly with the use of renewable energy, and energy efficiency, zero waste, sustainable and would like to play real to nourish the planet from global warming, then the application of biochar to "Carbon Farming" is the best solution.

Jumat, 23 November 2012

Continous Slow Pyrolysis Is The Best Technology For Biochar Production

Slow pyrolysis technology will maximize the resulting biochar product with yield about 30 percent of the raw material of biomass. With the modern technology of slow pyrolysis JF BioCarbon , operating conditions for the production of biochar can be arranged in such a way as to get the target with the desired qualitiy of biochar, in addition to raw material of its biomass which is also very influential in the quality of the resulting biochar. Characteristics of biochar production factor depending on, among others:

-the type of raw material

-treatment of raw materials prior to the production of biochar

-temperature production

-production residence time
-heating rate
-levels of oxygen during production

Research presented at a recent American Chemical Society annual meeting suggests that biochar plus chemical fertilizer yields increased growth of winter wheat and several vegetables by 25-50% compared to chemical fertilization alone. Soil Science Society of America experiments found that biochar supplemented with fertilizer outperformed fertilizer alone by 60%.

Reason for biochar use are likely to be one or more, but not necessarily all, of the following : -reducing requirements for other inputs, such as conventional fertilisers -sequestering carbon and hence reducing atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations -increasing crop yields by addressing a constraint to growth (e.g. Poor soil structure, low PH etc) -increasing the quality of the crop by addressing a constraint (e.g. Poor nutrient uptake resulting in low protein content) -remediation of contaminated soils -improving the physical properties or aesthetic of the soil or growing media (e.g. Making it dark in colour, decreasing bulk density etc.)
Biochar will enrich Soil organic matter
When we see the biomass thermal conversion such as torrefaction, fast pyrolysis, gasification and hydrothermal carbonization will look real that slow pyrolysis technology is the most appropriate and best to produce biochar in terms of the quality and quantity of biochar.This is because Torrefaction mainly to produce fuel in the form of torrified wood, fast pyrolysis primarily to maximize product biooil with applications especially for fuel and chemicals production, gasification applications for energy by maximising its gas products and hydrothermal carbonization (wet pyrolysis) mainly produces solid products which are suitable as fuels such as application co-firing in coal powerplant.

Agro-industries business such as sugar cane and palm oil plantations that produce abundant biomass waste is very potential for harnessing the JF BioCarbon technology because of the dual benefits, in plantation sector with biochar application and fulfilment of environmentally friendly energy for agro-industrial operations.

Rabu, 10 Oktober 2012

Biochar Based Slow Release Fertilizer And Soil Quality Improvement In Indonesian Palm Oil Plantation

Photo taken from here
Expansion (extensification) of palm oil plantation in Indonesia increasingly encouraged to pursue non-oil commodities. The allocation or designation of land for oil palm plantations should be done with careful consideration and comprehensive, so it does not upset the balance of the environment. This factor which highlighted a lot of environmentalists, and the user market oil products from Indonesia. Another factor that I think needs to be considered is the productivity of the oil palm plantation itself. With good farming techniques or start intensification then I am sure Indonesia will increase the productivity of palm oil.

Compared to Malaysia with palm plantation productivity 3.5 tons of CPO per ha, while Indonesia only 2.5 tons of CPO ha per year. Due to differences in the productivity of Malaysia's vast palm plantation only 61.5% of the area of ​​Indonesia but is capable of producing up to 17 million tons of CPO or 85.3% of Indonesia's CPO production. In this case, Indonesia needs to learn from Malaysia. Currently, the land has been planted with oil palm in Indonesia has 7.8 million ha, about 16.5% of the farms and plantations or 8.3% of the total forest area. There are still 7 million ha of arable land palm, a great opportunity to increase the production of CPO and its derivatives. Trade policy of developed countries that want to kill off Indonesia palm oil industry as edible oil industry afraid to compete with palm oil needs attention is important for the government for the betterment of the palm oil industry in Indonesia. All of the government, NGOs and industry have one vote for this.

Increased productivity is one of them with a good fertilization and using quality fertilizer. If you see activity on the production of CPO will be a lot of waste biomass produced can be used to meet energy needs and CPO mill byproduct of biochar. As a porous material that has the ability as adsorbent, biochar able to hold nutrients and water for longer, so that it can act as a slow release fertilizer. When all the oil mill biomass waste can be converted into energy and fertilizer byproducts biocharnya to the oil mill has reduced global warming (carbon neutral fuel with biomass and carbon negative with biochar application) and absolutely zero waste. This obviously also be a solution to the negative campaigning of oil palm plantations in Indonesia. Reliable continuous pyrolysis technology appropriate to the scale of the pool is a necessity. JF BioCarbon will able to answer it.

Judging from the condition of the global climate, carbon balance balance between the expansion of palm oil plantations, the carbon released when the process of biochar production by pyrolysis and carbon sequestration from the atmosphere by biochar. Optimization of the three will give the best results for the environment, human welfare and ecosystem.

Jumat, 07 September 2012

7 Reasons Why Future of World Economy Depends on Renewable Energy

There are various reasons as to why the global economic future depends on alternative renewable energy sources. Here are seven of these reasons.

  1. Reducing the effects of global warming. Alternative renewable energy sources will provide a solution to the ecological crisis that is caused in part by global warming. If the switch to alternative renewable energy sources is not made soon, this may have a very serious impact on the world economy and the world’s communities.
  2. Fossil fuels are running out. Oil and natural gas are not infinite and will run out eventually. Even before they run out, they will become increasingly expensive because of scarcity. The resulting energy crisis will have a devastating impact on the global economy.
  3. Reducing pollution. Alternative renewable energy sources are a wonderful way for reducing the global levels of pollution. For example, waste to energy is a great method of turning discarded trash into desperately needed energy to power and heat our homes.

  4. Supporting developing countries. The need for energy goes up every year, especially as more developing countries advance. When they have access to domestically produced energy, it will make their development process easier, as local economies benefit from the abundance of businesses and jobs. The countries of the future will be the countires that are embracing green energy sources right now. Look at China – they got into the act this last few years as they understand that there future depends on it. More and more countries are taking action. Anything to do with the green economy is going to be huge in the next few decades.

  1. Moving away from foreign oil dependency. It is possible to produce alternative renewable energy sources domestically in every country. This means that no nation will depend on another to provide it with the means to produce energy, as well as a cleaner domestic environment overall.
  2.  Investing in alternative energy. It is a smart choice to invest in alternative energy. This means that it is not only a great opportunity to help our planet, but also one to receive a good financial return in the end. 
  3. Creating green jobs. Many new jobs would be created once the switch to alternative renewable energy sources is made. Factory jobs would be needed, since the manufacturing of energy source components is needed. Technicians would be needed to install, service, and repair those energy source components, like wind turbines, solar panels, or municipal waste pyrolyzer.
While for the specific reasons on the biomass for energy with thermal energy conversion route, please click here.

For the original article, click here

For more information, go to:

Sabtu, 11 Agustus 2012

The Importance Of Standard Biochar

Biochar and charcoal are similar materials with different purposes. Charcoal, a fuel and metal reductant,is considered to be the oldest man-made material. The advantage of charcoal is that it burns with less smoke, which is advantageous when cooking indoors. In addition, charcoal burns hotter than wood, which allows it to be used for metal forming, such as in blacksmithing.

Adsorption is a pivotal property that distinguishes biochar from other carbon-rich natural products. Adsorption also distinguishes superior biochars from less effective “agricultural charcoals”. Since biochar is so new, there are no analytical methods developed specifically to measure adsorption in biochar, nor any experience base to relate adsorption to biochar impact when added to growing system. Thus,  urgently needed the standard biochars. Following paper will give analytical options for biochar adsorption and surface area, please go here.

Minggu, 08 Juli 2012

The discovery of Terra Preta Soil sites in East Kalimantan Will Accelerate the Implementation of Biochar in Indonesia

One proof will be more meaningful than a thousand promises. The recent discovery of Terra Preta soil in Malinau, East Kalimantan province make more people pay attention to biochar, which will accelerate the implementation of biochar and grow a variety of biochar industries in various regions in Indonesia and Southeast Asia.

To find out the news, please read the following article:
here and here.

Selasa, 03 Juli 2012

Biomass Ash Behaviour in Pyrolysis Process

In most pyrolysis systems, the operating temperatures are fairly modest. It is commonly found at laboratory and rig scale that the inherent mineral material in biomass tends to be retained within char, and is not released into gas or vapour phase in sufficient quantities to cause ash deposition or other operational problems within the reactor or in the gas collection equipment.

Very little work has been carried out on the distribution and stability of heavy metals in biochar. High mineral-ash biochars (especially chicken manure biochar and activated carbon) are known to adsorb heavy metals.

Very little has been published on the distribution of mineral ash within different type of biochar. Of the inorganic elements that comprise mineral ash, most are believed to occur as discrete phases separate from the carbonaceous matrix. In some biochars, however, K and Ca are distributed throughout the matrix where they may form phenoxides (K, Ca) or simply be intercalated between grapheme sheets (K).

Minerals found in biochars include sylvite (KCl), quartz (SiO2), amorphous silica, calcite (CaCO3), hydroxyapatite (Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2), and other minor phases such as Ca phosphates, anhydrite (CaSO4), various nitrates, and oxides and hydroxides of Ca, Mg, alumunium (Al), titanium (Ti), Mn, zinc (Zn) or Fe. Amorphous silica is of particular interest as it typically is in the form of phytoliths that contain and protect plant C from degradation. Crystalline silica is also of interest because it has been found in some biochars where it poses a very high level respiratory risk. Microprobe analysis of these biochars indicates that there is a large variation of mineral content even within each particle.

Jumat, 15 Juni 2012

Huge Demand of Torrified Biomass For Energy Application

Biomass ranks fourth as energy resource on global basis. Biomass is CO2 neutral and contains very little sulfur, hence it does not contribute greatly to acid-rain problems. Biomass have unique role on a renewable energy source.While the growing need for sustainable electric power can be met by other renewables, biomass is our only renewable source of carbon-based fuels and chemicals. Bioenergy is the word used for energy associated to biomass, and biofuel is the bioenergy carrier, transporting solar energy stored as chemical energy. Biofuels can be considered a renewable source of energy as long as they based on sustainable biomass production.

As Europe is very much the center of the global wood fuel market in general and the wood pellet/briquette market in particular, it comes as no surprise that vast majority of big wood fuel producers  of many countries have European countries as their final destination. With the goal set by the European Union to achieve a 20% share of renewable energy in the energy mix and a 20% decrease in greenhouse gas emissions by 2020 (DIRECTIVE 2009/28/EC, 2009) it is likely that the increase in EU demand for bioenergy will accelerate. However, it is also likely that a large share of future use of bioenergy in Europe will be from biomass of non-European origin as the resources are unlikely to be cost cost-competitive compared to biomass to biomass imported from other parts of the world.  

Trading wood fuel is always complex due to the biomass itself being both low in value per volume unit as well as difficult to store and transport as a result of it being a “living material” and hence susceptible to degradation from biological processes. Torrefaction is a technology to improve the quality of the biomass fuel and is followed by densification (pelleting / briquetting) will save transportation costs. Torrefaction has many advantages that overcome some problems in the wood fuel in general.

The quantities of biomass co-fired in large coal fired and other fossil fuel-fired power plant boiler have increased fairly dramatically over the past few years, particularly in Northern Europe but also elsewhere in the world. The level of co-firing activity worldwide, and the co-firing ratios at specific plants, are likely to increase further over the next few years.

Biomass materials have significant levels of inorganic matter as impurities, and many of the practical problems encountered with the combustion of biomass materials, or the co-combustion of biomass materials with coal and other fossil fuel, are associated with the nature and behaviour of the biomass ash and the other inorganic constituents. In practical terms, the ash-related problems in biomass combustors and boilers, and in plants co-firing biomass with more conventional fossil fuels, have commonly been associated with:
-The formation of fused or partly fused ash agglomerates and slag deposits at high temperature within furnaces;
-The formation of bonded ash deposits at lower gas temperatures on the heat exchange surfaces in the boiler convective sections and elsewhere;
-The accelerated metal wastage of boiler components due to gas-side corrosion and erosion;
-The formation and emmision of sub-micron aerosols and fumes; and
-The handling and utilization/disposal of ash residues from biomass combustion plants, and of the mixed ash residues from the co-firing of biomass in coal-fired boilers.

In very general terms, the nature of the problems and the impact on plant perfomance depend both on the characteristics of the biomass fuel, i.e. principally on the ash content and the ash chemistry, and on the design and operation of the combustion equipment and the boiler. Raw material have significant role of the densified (pellet/briquette) torrefied biomass quality. We will choose raw material with low ash content and a high ash melting temperature.

The peat and coal have the higher ash contents, but only a relatively small portion of the mineral material is in the water and acetate soluble fractions and is considered to contribute to the formation of the fine ash/aerosol material. In the case of the biomass materials, the total mineral contents are lower, but a much higher proportion of the mineral material is considered to contribute to the formation of the fine ash/aerosol fraction. The ash residue is normally weighed to provide an estimate of the ash content of the fuel, and then analysed for the ten major elements present in coal ashes, i.e. SiO2, Al2O3, Fe2O3, CaO, MgO, TiO, Na2O, K2O3, P2O5 dan SO3.

Usually slagging takes place with biomass fuels containing more than 4% ash and non-slagging fuels with ash content less than 4%. The ash content of different types of biomass is an indicator of slagging behaviour of the biomass. Generally, the greater the ash content, the greater the slagging behaviour. But this does not mean that biomass with lower ash content will not show any slagging behaviour. The temperature of combustion temperature, the mineral compostion of ash and their percentage combined determine the slagging behaviour. If conditions are favorable, the the degree of slagging will be greater. Minerals like SiO2, Na2O and K2O3 are more trouble some.

The selection of raw materials is an important factor for the production of torrified biomass. High quality torrified biomass need to be produced to meet a variety of industrial and domestic needs. Chemical treatment of raw materials can be made ​​to increasing the quality of raw materials, but it will do if the quality of raw materials is not sufficient anymore. Finally a reliable technology for the production of  torrified biomass absolutely necessary to meet those needs.