Jumat, 16 April 2010

Torrefaction is The Most Efficient Way of Harnessing Biomass Energy and especially the best solution for EFB problem in SE Asian POMs

Taiwan's Minister Stephen Shu-hung Shen has suggestion that Torrefaction is The Most Efficient Way of Harnessing Biomass Energy . He explain it as part of an effort to gain participation in the United Nation Framework Convention on Climate Change. Torrefaction is the roasting of wood or other biomass to create a product that (1) has increased energy density; (2) has characteristics that make it easy to handle and transport; and (3) is practical to co-fire in existing coal plants.

Then, Portland General Electric submitted a letter to the Oregon Public Utilities Commission laying out a plan to either shut down the Boardman coal-fired power plant or discontinue use of coal as the fuel source for that plant. Portland General Electric's letter follows a November 5, 2009 Integrated Resource Plan in which the utility recommended the installation of $520 million to $560 million of emissions control retrofits to comply with new rules from the state Environmental Quality Commission (EQC).

Portland General Electric then suggested that they are considering torrefied wood as a fuel source:
PGE spokesman Steve Corson said the company is keeping a close eye on research around a biomass technology called “torrefaction.”
The end product could be a direct substitute for coal, allowing the Boardman plant to continue operating but using a renewable and carbon-friendly feedstock. Torrefaction removes moisture and low energy volatiles from the roasted wood, producing a product that is more energy dense (more energy per unit of weight) than wood and almost as dense as coal. The significance of this increased energy density is shown in the following comparison.

The other benefit of torrified wood is more economical to transport than units of green wood or wood pellets with similar total energy content. Torrefied wood is also more durable than green wood or wood pellets because it (1) is moisture resistant and can be shipped in bulk open containers and stored uncovered and handled in a manner similar to coal, and (2) can withstand 1.5 to 2 times the crushing force of wood pellets. Thus, when compared to green wood or wood pellets, torrefied wood can be transported cheaper, farther and with less environmental impact from transportation operations.

Grinds Similar to Coal. Torrefied material grinds similar to coal. It can be ground in many existing facilities, easing its integration into existing coal facilities. By comparison, wood pellets are difficult to grind, effectively prohibiting their use in most existing coal plants. Burns Similar to Coal. While torrefied wood is a renewable, carbon neutral resource, it burns similar to coal. Certain volatiles and other compounds (hemi-cellulose material contained in wood) are largely eliminated in the torrefaction process, making torrefied materials easier to co-fire in power plants originally designed to use only coal.

This change in the chemical composition of the wood not only increases the energy density, but also improves the manner in which the wood is burned in a coal gasifier, thus permitting more of the energy to be converted into electricity. This makes the energy content of torrefied wood more valuable. By comparison, wood pellets contain volatile organic compounds that release smoke when burned. These volatiles can create slag or ash in existing coal power plants and restrict the use of wood pellets in such plants.

The integration of torrefied wood into existing coal power plants requires no upfront capital investment by the coal plant operator. Thus, torrefied wood provides existing coal burning utilities the ability to produce green energy with no upfront cost. Torrefied wood is a renewable resource under current EU law and the American Clean Energy and Security Act of 2009 (as passed by the House of Representatives earlier this year and currently pending in the Senate). As a result, coal plant operators can obtain renewable energy and/or carbon trading credits by incorporating torrefied wood into their production process.

JFE believe that torrefied wood presents current economically viable opportunities for large scale production of renewable energy. Indonesian has a renewable energy source with huge potential and abundant, but their utilization is still very limited.The first sequence is solar, then the second is biomass and geothermal in the third (please refer table below). Abundant biomass waste and will decompose (fermented to produce methane) causes environmental problems need to be addressed immediately.

Indonesia and Malaysia is the biggest CPO producer in the world with more than 500 Palm Oil Mills. There are number of solid and liquid waste streams from the Palm Oil Mill processes. Solid wastes include empty fruit bunch (EFB), fiber and shell with liquid wastes including oil sludge and Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME).
Based on a PALM OIL MILL capacity 30 T FFB / hour, the following solid waste
streams are produced:
EFB: 6.9 T/hour or 165.6 T/day
Fiber: 3.9 T/hour or 93.6 T/day
Shell: 1.95 T/hour or 46.8 T/day.

The key to the success of the JFBC systems is the simplicity of design and ease of operations. Once the plant is up to a specific temperature using fuel oil, simply load the feed bin, keep an eye on the temperature and charcoal, bio-oil and biogas comes out, each into its own holding tanks.

The heart of the JFBC patent pending system is the air absent retorts. In a continuous process, raw organic material of any kind is passed through the retorts and cooked into marketable products. While some of the biogas is used to fuel its own process, on site gas turbines or steam boilers can be fueled by the same gas. Variable speed drives give the operator total control on product quality by altering the residence time of the feed stock.

The operator can also vary the percentage split between the bio-oil and charcoal by changing the temperature. Higher temp will yield more oil while lower will get you more charcoal or torrified Wood.JFBS Pyrolysis technology can produce biochar (charcoal) or torrified wood. Priority to processing it depends on many consideration especially yielded added value and availability of raw material.

2 komentar:

  1. i'd like to share this topic at my blog.
    Can I ?
    i think this topic very very interesting.
    thank you.

    Note : my blog http://uwa-pabriksawit.blogspot.com